Picture This: World War I Posters and Visual Culture (Studies in War, Society, and the Military)


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The traditional caste-system prevails. Nepal still has immense problems in the socio-cultural, religious, economic sectors. The rampant corruption in all sectors, with special emphasis in politics, commercial and economic sectors has shaken the beliefs of generations of Nepalis. The much-proclaimed democracy initiated in hasn't been able to fulfil its promises, and maoistic communism is on the rise in the western part of Nepal, where the Nepalis of tibeto-burman origin live, as though it were a panacea for all of this ailing nation's malady.

In Solokhumbu, known for its Everest-trekking route, maoists were killed by the police. According to some organisations at least , Nepalese have left their homes and another 1,8 million have sought refuge in other countries.

As time has shown us in the past, there is no genuine cure for all the problems of this country. Nepal's democracy has to learn to crawl before it can walk and after a decade of constitutional democracy, the nation is still in its infancy.

The incessant changes of governments and the rise of communism is irritating not only to the people within, but also the comity of aid-giving nations without. This book cries to be written because there are hardly any books written by Nepali authors. It's always the travelling tourist, geologist, geographer, biologist, climber and ethnologist who writes about Nepal and its people, environment, flora and fauna.

The Nepalis are mostly statists in these visit-Nepal-scenarios published in New York, Paris, Munich and Sydney and they are described through western eyes. But there have been generations of thinking and writing Nepalis, who were either educated in old Benares Varanasi , in British Public Schools in Darjeeling and government schools and colleges in Nepal and India, who have written and published hundreds of books and magazines.

Kamal Mani Dixit, Patan's Man-of- Letters, describes as the "Temple of Nepali language," there are 15, Nepali books and different magazines and periodicals about which the western world hasn't heard or read. Nepali literature is also represented in the electronic media and there are quite a number of websites that give Nepali writers the opportunity to have their short-stories and poems published in the web. I'd like to thank Dada Kamal Mani Dixit for motivating me to translate Devkota's Muna Madan, for this sad but wonderful poem has a message for all people living in the diaspora, far away from their homes and it brings the nostalgia, Sehnsuch and longing that one feels, even when one has found a place to call one's home in a foreign shore.

Muna Madan makes us sad, brings tears to one's eyes and gives hope despite the distance, when one hears the refrain from the Himalayas.

Some of the themes that have been dealt with in this collection are: The likely readers are the increasing number of male and female trekking tourists, climbers seeking their own limits, peace and tranquillity, spiritual experience or a much-needed monologue in the rarefied heights of the Nepal Himalayas. The book has a glossary within the text information about the original Nepali authors from Nepal and the diaspora of Darjeeling. Collectors from all over the world have been appreciating her superb creations.

She holds one of her dolls and says in German: She not only makes sketches of her living objects, but also creates replicas, does mould building, casting and baking. Even the clothes and accessoires are exceptional. And she only uses high-quality materials such as original French biscuit clay, precious silk and brocade fabrics. Her special mould-making technique allows unlimited possibilities for experimenting.

She lets it stay for twenty-four hours and stirs the mixture again till all the air-bubbles have disappeared. This porcelain mass is poured into the one-hole form. Depending on the size of the form, you have to wait for three to ten minutes and pour the content back. After that you wait for two hours. As long as the head is soft, you have to work on the throat.

She took a scalpel and carved the eyes out. Roswitha was creating a doll in her own way, giving expression to t, till it almost had a life of its own. The head had to be dried in a dry room. She had a table full of white heads, which needed to be extremely dried. After that the heads were put in an oven and heated to a temperature of degrees Centigrade. Now the doll gets its biscuit colour. Roswitha coloured the eyebrows and lips, then put them back in the oven.

Then she applied the cheek-rouge and the eye-lashes, and put the head in the oven again. In the end you have to choose the right eyes to give the doll a certain character. Next comes the lead of the head, like a scalp and a genuine French hair wig.

Satis Shroff The old tradition of the dhami-jhakri in which the fate of a person can be influenced by appeasing the spirits is still intact in Nepal.

For the spirits Geister , be they rough or fine in their manifestations, belong to the everyday lives of the tradition-conscious Nepalese and many other ethnic-peoples in the northern and southern hemispheres of this globe. It must be mentioned that in the 80, hamlets of Nepal, there are over , shamans and traditional healers, who have to some extent acquired the basics of modern medical treatment through the Health Ministry. The traditional healers of Nepal are not only versed in the nature of illnesses caused by spirits, demons, male and female witches, Gods and Goddesses, but also diseases which are in conformity with epidemiological studies and results.

The usual diseases that are mentioned by traditional healers are: Other commonly mentioned diseases are: In the past the shamans were not allowed to get rich through healing, and the codex and ethics of the healers in the Himalayas were strict. Today, the Nepalese shaman blesses a life-saving electrolyte solution for the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery. The shaman has become innovative in Nepal, and makes himself or herself socially useful by ritualising and selling anti-baby pills for a small financial commission.

This way, he or she helps Family planning, which is supported by the government. The Nepalese government has raised the status of the shaman by bestowing an official title upon him: Practitioner of Traditional Medicine, with the condition that he or she take part in medical and hygiene courses.

The position of the shamans in the hamlets of Nepal is getting a certain amount of recognition and importance, because he or she gathers new experiences and acquires modern methods of healing, and in this way, the shaman uses a combination of traditional and modern medicine. From a sociological point of view, magico-religious healing plays a central and positive role. The magic and faith in the healing powers of the shaman helps to strengthen the group, tribe or caste by defining a common foe, and in identifying the evil, invisible spirit that has been causing illness.

Moreover, the healing ritual of the shaman late into the night helps to sublime difficult somatic Triebanspruche and to channel them in a socially acceptable and legal way, without being stigmatised in the society as being abnormal or an ill-person. When you boil down the matter between traditional and modern medicine, belief is in the eye of the beholder. The people in Nepal still have faith in the practitioners of traditional medicine, despite the danger of being stigmatised as being superstitious, anachronistic and backward.

The government has found out that even though Health Post have been set up, the people living in the foothills of the Himalayas Mittelgebirge still prefer ritual therapies from their shamans.

The medically-trained traditional healers can reach millions of Nepalese through a well-developed strategy. Most of the Dhamis-Jhakris have shown that they are open to new skills in health, population and family-oriented basic knowledge.

Moreover they were and are ready to give their acquired modern knowledge to their respective communities in their hamlets. Traditional complementary medicine has come to stay. It was there all the time in different continents, and is an expression of care, humane-treatment, softness Sanftemedizin , dignity, respect and empathy for the ill person.

More patients means more money for the physician and the health insurance company. That leaves little time and hope for the hapless, impatient patient. The value of hope: The value of hope, which is an important resource in different cultures and among traditional healers, is lost in modern medicine. What was Florence Nightingale doing with her candle-light in the bedsides and stretchers of her wounded soldiers in the Crimean War?

Was she giving them antibiotics, anti-viral drugs? No, she was giving these forlorn souls a precious medicine named hope. But is traditional medicine entirely based on hope? So does modern medicine, which enjoys perfect packaging and marketing and ads through the media. Modern medicine is a science because its experiments can be reproduced, it is systematic and can adjust itself in combating new bacteria, viruses and other disease causing microbes.

But traditional or complementary medicine is also learning mew methods of treatment and hospital hygiene. Alone in Dr. Since there are more traditional healers than physicians and paramedical personell, the traditional healers are an important resource for the family planning and health organisations in Nepal.

This study has revealed that the traditional healers play an important role. The traditional healers are always ready to visit their patients, even though it means walking through the better part of the day to treat the patients. School medicine has to win the traditional healer as a resource and ally, and not as concurrence, for the common aim of traditional and modern medicine is to free the individual from his or her illness, and provide an efficient and honest cure.

The wellness and recuperation of the patient should be the common goal and not rivalry. This target was fixed by the Nepalese government and the shamans are now treated with respect, asked for assistance and requested to take part in therapy-workshops and medical training projects.

Such workshops were held in: Kanchanpur, Chandani municipality, Mahendranagar, Syangja and Ilam in the past. The participating shamans learned how to motivate the people of their respective communities, family-planning and other health-promoting measures. The shaman can differentiate the principle of causality and logical thinking and communication. The shaman manifests religion and the art of healing as a coexistence form, and is open for new healing methods if it helps the patient.

And to this end, there are universities that are training therapists through the use of modern and traditional medicine by inviting and bringing together traditional healers and modern therapists, medical and nursing students and physicians. Two German two universities in Heidelberg and Munich have established themselves in the service of traditional and modern medicine by offering workshops and seminars by bringing practitioners of Traditional and Modern Medicine together.

It is a marriage between the two systems of medicine. Es unterstreicht die anthropologische Annahme, dass Menschen in der Lage sind, ihr Leben in eigener Bestimmung und Verantwortung zu gestalten. Die Betonung von Selbsthilfe Selbstorganisation kann einerseits als Warnung vor staatlicher Bevormundung verstanden werden, andererseits kann sie als Rechtfertigung staatlicher Untätigkeit in strukturellen Krisensituationen benutzt werden. Selbsthilfegruppen in Nepal sind kulturspezifisch. Der Sozialarbeiter könnte auch hier tätig werden mit ergänzender Schuldner- bzw.

Solche ergänzende Hilfen sind sehr wichtig für die einfachen, ungebildeten ländlichen Einwohner Nepals. In den beratenden und helfenden Angeboten kann der Sozialarbeiter nicht über die Geisteshaltung des Klienten hinwegsehen. Auf die erkannte Fähigkeit des Klienten zu vertrauen, sein Selbstwertgefühl zu stärken und ihn ein Weg zur Selbsthilfe sein, ist die Aufgabe des Sozialarbeiters. Es wäre wichtig, solche traditionellen2 Organisationsformen zu unterstützen und zu fördern, damit die Ethnien in Nepal davon lernen und profitieren können.

Dieses Ziel wäre durch die Re-vitalisierung der induzierten Selbsthilfegruppen in den verschiedenen Ethnien zu erreichen. Hinzu kommen die einheimischen intraethnischen Selbsthilfeorganisationsformen, die jahrzehntelang erfolgreich eingeführt worden sind. Die ländlichen Bewohner Nepals sind familiär mit kurzfristigen oder wenig permanenten Selbsthilfegruppen, die für verschiedene Zwecke zusammengestellt werden.

Forstwirtschaftselbsthilfegruppen wie bana djane Waldarbeiter , ghas katne Grassschneider , pat tipne Futtersammler , und daura tipne Feuerholzsammler. Soziokulturelle Selbsthilfegruppen wie guthi bei den Newars vom Katmandutal , rodi Kommunale Gruppe von den Gurungs und bheja kommunale Gemeinschaft. Religiöse Selbsthilfegruppe wie kirtan-bhajan mandali Hymne bzw. Politische Selbsthilfegruppe wie die pancha bhaladmi Fünf ehrenhafte Gentlemen und dharma panchayat örtlicher Rat.

Andere, auf der kommunalen Ebene auch wichtige Organisationsformen in Nepal sind: Manche Organisationen scheinen formell zu sein, aber strukturell sind sie informell.

Manche sind kasten- bzw. Dem Gesundheitssektor Nepals wird allgemein bei der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit ein hoher Stellenwert eingeräumt. Dies drückt sich nicht zuletzt darin aus, dass viele Organisationen und Einrichtungen sich in diesem Sektor engagieren. Der Gesundheitssektor stellt einen Schwerpunktsektor der deutschen7 Entwicklungszusammenarbeit mit Nepal dar. Gegenwärtig werden folgende Vorhaben in Nepal gefördert: Dieses Vorhaben hat die Stärkung der zentralen Programm-Planung und -Steuerung im Gesundheitsministerium, Verbesserungen der Aus- und Weiterbildung des Gesundheitspersonals sowie die Entwicklung von dezentralisierten Gesundheits- und Familienplanungssystemen zum Gegenstand.

Das Projekt existiert seit , und die Planung reicht bis weit in das nächste Jahrhundert. Zum einen das Vorhaben Reproduktive Gesundheit, welches darauf abzielt, dass Frauen, Männer und Jugendliche verstärkt die Möglichkeit nutzen, vorbeugende, gesundheitsfördernde und kurative Praktiken im Bereich reproduktiver Gesundheitsförderung anzuwenden. Desweiteren ist das Projekt Instandhaltung im Gesundheitswesen geplant, das eine Verbesserung des administrativen Instandhaltungssystems sowie die Verbesserung des Zustandes medizinischer Geräte und Ausrüstungsgegenstände in Gesundheitseinrichtungen zum Inhalt hat.

Die Dörfer sollen die SHPs selbst unterstützen. Die Träger dieses Projektes sind: Hat die ausländische Finanzhilfe als Katalysator gewirkt, um den Lebensstandard der Bevölkerung zu erhöhen? Hat das Land ein Ziel erreicht, das Nepal auf anderem Weg nicht hätte erreichen können? But the NGOs are the creation of the donor agencies as an alternative mechanism. They say your normal administrative channel never reaches the poor which the NGOs can do.

So this is also an imposed idea. But the problem is: How do you coordinate projects and NGOs? Dixit ist der Meinung, dass die ausländische Hilfe die in Katmandu ansässigen Eliten des Landes vergiftete und das gesamte Land wie von einer Droge abhängig machte. Die meisten Geber konzentrieren ihre Gelder kaum auf die wirklichen Probleme.

Die auswärtige Entwicklungshilfe hat die Macht und die Privilegien im Katmandutal zentralisiert. Sie hat die alten Reichen hofiert und unterstützend dazu beigetragen, dass eine Gruppe Neureicher entstand. Die Entwicklungshilfe hat somit ein Abhängigkeitssyndrom14 geschaffen, das sich von der Regierungsebene bis hinunter auf das Dorfniveau erstreckt. Nepal verfügt über eine jahrhundertealte Tradition im Bau von Brücken, welche die zahllosen Gewässer überquerten.

Wo einfache Holzstege nicht mehr genügten, bauten die nepalesischen Fachleute Hängebrücken mit handgeschmiedeten Ketten. Dennoch konnten breitere Flüsse auf diese Weise nicht überbrückt werden. Die Regierung beauftragte zuerst eine schottische Firma, an verschiedenen Flussübergängen Brücken mittels Kabel zu bauen.

Politische Selbsthilfegruppe wie die pancha bhalamancheyharu Fünf ehrenhafte Gentlemen dharma panchayat örtlicher Rat. They use the traditional bullocks and buffaloes that are seen in the villages of Southeast Asia.

They dig the fields manually. The women work beside the men, with babies strapped to their backs. Long wooden hoes are being used to dig and break the soil, whole families pitching in to do the job. And far out in the distance, the all-seeing-eyes of the compassionate Swayambhu observes the land from the towers on which his eyes are painted. As you start for the temple, you're first greeted by two Tibetan lions, set in stone, amid wonderful wooded surroundings.

Behind the lions you see three colossal statues of the Buddha, serene and daubed in flaming red and gold. All around you there are naked trees in poses of suspended animation. The ground crackles as you step on the fallen brown and russet leaves.

Shrill bird cries ring through the air. It is roosting time, you say to yourself. The trees are silhouetted against the evening sky and the shadows are lengthening. Your eyes discern the prayers carved in the granite slabs as you ascend the seemingly endless stairs. A bearded tourist and a bevy of girls giggle nearby, talking in French and eating peanuts. They pass some peanuts to the swarm of monkeys who are a regular feature of Swayambhu. The Rhesus monkeys are creeping, jumping, fooling and fighting with each other.

The overhanging eaves of the stupa, gilded with gold, are loosely chained together. The wind blowing from across the silvery Himalayas makes them rustle.

You are dumbfounded by the majestic temple. Three lamas go by: You take a cue from them and go about spinning the copper prayer wheels that girdle the dome. Then you peer at the all-seeing-eyes painted on the four sides of the stupa and look where they look: You feel that you have indeed reached the top of the world. It is chilly, and an icy gust of wind blows your hair. The clatter of the prayer-wheels is constant.

The stony stairs are set at an extremely steep angle, but there are railings to help you up or down. A Tibetan, probably a Khampa from Eastern Tibet, mumbles his prayers as he comes down from the temple.

He is wrapped in heavy mauve woollens. A shaggy Tibetan Apso, a tiny dog, like a Pekingese, with bells round his collar jingles past. A few paces up, a monkey stealthily passes by as though he were a big-game hunter.

You are again confronted by meditating Buddhas: The going is hard but the ascent is redeemed because of the breathtaking beauty of the place. More Rhesus monkeys dart around you. One of them takes a joy ride along the railings like a kid, skids off and vanishes. You can't help laughing. You abruptly come across two statues of horses: You're weary but you press on and come across small elephant statues, with live monkeys playing pranks on their backs.

The monkeys give you a quizzical stare. These are all part of the Buddhist pantheon. Now you begin to understand why the tourists call this temple complex also "the monkey temple".

The monkeys are protected by law as is the yeti and have freedom there since over years. They live on the offerings brought by the Hindus and Buddhists, and peanuts and popcorn offered by the tourists. Your climb is over. The sky is dark, blue, and is fast changing into Prussian blue, and Venus has already appeared, but you have eyes only for the gigantic white dome and stupa of the Self-Existent One. The stupa is of great sanctity for all Hindus and Buddhists. It is hemispherical and you are struck by its enormous size.

The earliest inscription on Swayambhunath dates back to the year , but the stupa is thought to be much older. You make your way to a Buddhist monk and he tells you a legend about Swayambhu It was on this spot, where you now stand that a lotus bloomed and became the heart of the world". The ruling means the the current Kumari, nine-year-old Preeti Shakya, can be freed from a virtual ornate prison in the palace.

The reform comes on the heels of the return to democracy and elimination of the Nepali Hindu monarchy. The Kumari was used to reinforce the legitimacy of the year-old monarchy. The ruling could signal the beginning of the end of the tradition. Officials are livid at the ruling.

Rajan Maharajan, the vice president of the committee that looks after the Kumari and her palace. In any case, she is a goddess so how can court rulings apply? As the video shows below, however, the Kumari is not allowed to speak to anyone. While the Kumari is a living princess, she loses that status when she starts menstruating — then a new Kumari is selected. The tradition obviously repels many feminists and Westerners. The ecological minded mayor of Kathmandu rounded up 88 stray cows and has auctioned them outside Kathmandu Valley.

The auction yielded 64, rupees to the Kathmandu municipality. The holy cows of Kathmandu have been declared as public nuisances and obstruction to the traffic in the city.

Till recently, the cows of Kathmandu walked at a leisurely gait with that notable air of nonchalance which all Nepalese high-brow cows possess because they're revered and worshipped by the Hindus. During my summer holidays I happened to be in Kathmandu seeping in the symphony of colour, noise and sights of Kathmandu perched smack in the middle of Indrachowk.

The noise emitted by the haggling vendors and customers, the high pitched bells of the temples mingling with the honks of scooters, and the sound of bamboo flutes, and the occasional moo of a languidly straying cow who love the vegetable market. This was the sound that I had missed in Freiburg. The smell of burning sandalwood incense sticks, steaming momos, mangoes, gauvas and lotus, marigold and magnolias permeated the air. Add to this cacaphony the unruffled tourists and you get a picture of the pulsating life in this Himalayan bazaar.

In the meantime, another cow, this time a white one with pink ears but hopelessly bent horns, tried to go through a bevy of giggling saffron-wrapped college girls. The flying vegetable market in Kathmandu is a shanty affair with make-shift transitory shops because the policeman keeps on telling them to park their vegetables elsewhere. A steel-blue Ford cruised by noiselessly like a ghost of a battleship.

The indigenous push-cart dubbed gurkha-jeep rumbled by, pushed by brawny Tamang porters. Nearby, a small Japoo-child in his birthday suit prodded a big brown cow with a puny stick. Right near where I was perched was a local Jyapoo Newari farmer selling yellow bananas. The bananas looked ripe and the Jyapoo looked prosperous. The good man was busy haggling with his customer: Half a comb of bananas later, the Jyapoo finally saw the cool cow.

What he did next was utterly remarkable. He performed what might be best described as a VTO. He took of from the ground like a British Harrier jet and then thundered at the calm cow. She galloped off like a horse. But that wasn't the end of it. The frightened cow bolted like an unguided missile through the commuters, pedestrians and what-have-yous in the alleys of Kathmandu in its fright.

A cyclist was knocked down and quite a number of Hindus and Buddhists got edgy because of the onrushing cow. What shall I do? According to a legend, a Nepalese king ordered cows to be set free in the streets of Kathmandu by families in mourning to share the pain of the death of a young prince. And since then children in Kathmandu Valley disguise themselves as grotesque cows and motley figures and dance to make the queen laugh. The queen in the legend is long dead but the cow-festival 'Gaijatra' remains.

As you walk the streets of Kathmandu, along Asan Tole, Indrachowk and Basantapur near the Freak Street, which is actually called Jhoche Tole, you see the old Newari women with golden pierced ears and children watching you with a curiosity from the artistically carved wooden windows.

You cannot help feel being watched, because the doors of Kathmandu have the all-seeing eyes of the primordeal Buddha painted on them. Below every house leading into the streets, you see shops selling almost everything: The carpets are eye-catching despite that fact that the colourful ethnic dragons, snow lions and mandalas are disappearing to suit European living rooms in pastel-colours ordered per fax.

There are souvenirs on display such as: The entire temples and altars seem to be on-sale. And the gods seem to be moving out. And out in the distance beyond the forest of Nagarjun: They even had self-baked cakes for diabetics, not that we had insulin problems, but I do remember that my diabetic Creative Writing Professor Bruce Dobler would order a sandwich, weigh it on his portable Waage meticulously. Every gram seemed to count. The tea was excellent and the butter cakes delicious.

Through the white painted windows we could see the blue North Sea and the boats. Trawlers were approaching the harbour bringing in their haul. Our table had a glass case filled with Darjeeling tea leaves. Thomas asked if it was the First Flush or the Second? After the excellent Fresian tea we went for a walk along the dyke to the harbour. To our left was the Watt, which had been laid artificially, and which had become a habitat for all sorts of birds among them naturally a numerous sea-gulls.

Behind us we could see the bunkers built during the Third Reich, td been constructed though the iron-door leading to it was closed. Where the tarmac had been constructed for the German Luftwaffe, was now a dense forest, but the impeccable landing area was still intact.

Private twin-motored planes took-off and landed now and again. On August 3, some Soviet prisoners of war were brought to Langeoog.

The island chronist and teacher Richard Windemuth described them this way: What we saw were figures in rags and uncouth due to the imprisonment, a very depressing picture.

The youngest POW was 15 years old, and they had to work at the airport of Langeoog. After the krieg the island community is said to have created a passable memorial.

On August 26, came the French prisoners of war to Langeoog. The treatment was harder than usual in the Isle of Langegoog, but not comparable to the treatment of Soviet prisoners. It might be noted that the Führer Hitler in his big speech demanded from the German public to pray for the blessings of the Almighty for the German Waffen soldiers in the Eastern Front. Just before midnight on September 7, Langeoog was bombed again. To the south of the airport incendiary bombs were counted.

A ship under construction received 15 splitters and the harbour building was completely destroyed. He knew through his own suffering and experience what freedom meant, and he also knew what personal freedom one had to sacrifice to achieve freedom for all, for freedom is not only a word. Freedom means words and deeds, as is evident in the Tibetan issue where people around the world are reacting and agitating for the fundamental rights of a country called the Roof of the World. Meanwhile, you could discern a hoot from an outwards bound ship or the red catamaran which commutes between Langeoog and Benzersiel, and the incessant cries of the sea-gulls vying with each other to get a morsel of fish from the trawlers that were coming to their home-harbour.

The inhabitants of Langeoog are facing a tough time battling against Nature. The sea, which is washing away the island is one factor, and the influx of people with a lot of capital from the mainland is the other factor. The dunes are very important for the islands and coasts just as the wind, water and sun. Like the Watt and salty meadows, the dunes and other habitats also underlie special dynamic changes and some flora and fauna need these changes.

Strandhafer, Strandroggen and Stranddistel live here. Brandgeese and sea-gulls breed primarily in the dunes. The dunes are much higher than the dykes and a lot broader.

Every year, the west-wind and west-waves bring thousands of tons of sand from the East Sea to the North Sea. The protection of the coast and nature conservation go hand in hand. One remarkable feature of the Isle of Langeoog is that it has been long declared a car-free zone. The main means of communication in the Isle is with an old, gaudy diesel-driven train that brings you to the town from the harbour.

After that you can hire a horse-driven taxi, bicycle or go on foot. The cars remain in Bensersiel mainland. And unless you know someone in the island who has a plane, everyone is obliged to take the ferry. We walked along the north-west beach into the small town. The beach was littered with churned sea-shells, sea-weed and plastic garbage of the tourists. The people of Langeoog have to separate their garbage and put them in the respective bins—as everywhere in Germany, Switzerland and Austria.

Green bins for paper, brown for biological or organic garbage and yellow plastic bags for PVC and plastic garbage. The walk along the North Sea Wattenmeer, along the shore of Langeoog was interesting and strenuous and the local guide Uwe G. He introduced us to the dangers and secrets of the Watt, which is typical for Germany and Scandinavian countries.

We walked every metres into the sea, and Uwe dug his fork into the sea-bed and showed us the wonders of the North Sea Watt: How the heart-mussel and clams live, and how to get a glass full of shrimps swimming in water. He loved to tell you about the peristaltic of the worms in comparison to humans, their reproductive and digestive systems.

It was what you might call a marine biology lecture carried at a hilarious, non-scientific level and the people loved him for it. But Uwe was very self-conscious and he went on candidly comparing humans with molluscs. The children and grown-ups had a good time. And it got difficult to pull out the gum-boots out of the Schlack dark, sticky, muddy water. It was a moment when I thought it would perhaps be better to leave my gum-boots behind.

But I somehow managed to walk on. The Wattwanderung along the shores of the Isle of Langeoog was interesting and strenuous and we learned quite a lot about the wildlife and acquatic animas on the shores of the North Sea Wattenmeer. Another day it was a chilly, and we could feel the gusts of wind blowing to the island from the North Sea.

Although we had our pullovers, jackets and gum-boots on, as we trudged along between the beach and the waves, busy gathering sea-shells, a woman in the autumn of her life, wearing a one-piece bathing suit in anthroposophical orange pastell colours, walked to the sea and began swimming in the cold, wind-swept water. She was very courageous, disciplined and trimmed for a hard life, I thought.

I think of the colourful Wicker beach-chairs with hoods, And the small island train. I think of Flut and Ebbe, Of time and tide, Clams, starfish, seaweed. The shores full of shrimps, Sea-urchins and jelly-fish. As a long-time Freiburger, I went with him to a local tavern near the Schwabentor for a swig of German beer. His poor wife had to remain in Lenzerheide with the children.

In the case of Toni Hagen, however, he seemed to be a wandering soul, even in the winter of his life, spending half of his time in the Swiss Alps and the other half in the Himalayas.

He was one of the last living witnesses of a secretive Nepal of the Middle Ages. As the first foreigner who had the freedom of travelling in Nepal as he pleased, Hagen visited areas which are still forbidden to most people even today.

When I saw the film, I had the uneasy feeling that he was saying goodbye to us all. With the passage of time, Toni Hagen changed his profession from geology to development-work, and he was deeply concerned about the problems of development aid, its successes and failures not only in Nepal but also in many other countries. The people interested him more than the stratigraphic formations.

He took delight in the fact that the World Bank stopped the Arun III project in Nepal thanks to his efforts and the united lobbying on the part of the ecological organisation Urgewalt, Dr.

After the World Bank decision not to finance the dam project, it was taken for granted that the million marks from the German side would be set aside for other smaller projects. What Nepal needs are not atomic plants but water-works. In those days, the only pressure that Nepal had as a sovereign state was from India in connection with the trade and transit disagreements.

Times have changed and the threat is from within, in the form of maoists, and not from without. Singh, who also presented him a key to the city.

Nepal can be divided into seven zones: And according to Toni Hagen the river system existed before the Nepal Himalayas came into existence. The Himalayan rivers carved gigantic gorges. According to him it would be appropriate if the Midlands were not ignored today. From the terai to the hills you have in ascending order of crop cultivation: Wheat is a relatively new crop in Nepal. And then he started to talk about the soil erosion. He pointed out that the steep terraces resulted in soil erosion caused by human beings.

The yield per hectre had been decreasing and the land for cultivation had also been decreasing. As far as the terai was concerned, his prognosis was that it would produce surplus food for a decade, and mentioned that most of the food went to India, because the traders in the plains offered better prices and the transport infrastructure was already there in form of good railways and roads.

In the terai the ground water can be reached at a depth of 2 metres. The terai, with its rich alluvial soil, could be developed into the corn-chamber of Nepal, much like the Punjab in India. And Nepal should not export its rice to India but keep it for domestic demands in the Kingdom.

We may have a surplus at the moment but the question is whether we can keep up this production or not? He complained that the Foreign Aid until invested money mostly in road-construction projects which was a grave mistake, for it sucked up the last reserves of Nepal.

Nepal is like a very sick patient. Multilateral and bilateral aid agencies at the governmental and non-governmental level have injected foreign cash and material into Nepal, and the result is that the very economic structure has been weakened.

A sum of US Chakari, nepotism and corruption are just as rampant in the post-democratic era as in the past. The first priority was given to transport, then agriculture and lastly energy. The other way round would have been better on the long run. He held a pedagogic finger and reminded one Nepal is a country with the biggest hydro-electric potential in the world. Whereas the population of Nepal in was 8 million, in it was 17,5 million. And whereas the mean life expectancy in was 26 years, a Nepalese now can live to be 40 to 50 years old if not more.

Whereas there were 2,5 million domestic animals in , there are over 3,2 million these days.