Afrikaners

 

The Afrikaners are a South African ethnic group who are descended from 17th century Dutch, German, and French settlers to South Africa. The Afrikaners slowly developed their own language and culture when they came into contact with Africans and Asians.

Status and Respectability in the Cape Colony, — He then divided the period between and into six thirty-year blocs, and working under the assumption that earlier colonists contributed more to the gene pool, multiplied each child's bloodline by 32, 16, 8, 4, 2 and 1 according to respective period. Baster Cape Coloureds Oorlam. The Boers created sovereign states in what is now South Africa:

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Definition of Afrikaner - an Afrikaans-speaking white person in South Africa, especially one descended from the Dutch and Huguenot settlers of the 17th cent.

Scholars have traditionally considered Afrikaners to be a homogeneous population of Dutch ancestry, subject to a significant founder effect. Afrikaners are descended, to varying degrees, from Dutch, German and French Huguenot immigrants, along with minor percentages of other Europeans and indigenous African peoples. Their numbers can be easily reconstructed from censuses of the Cape rather than passenger lists, taking into account VOC employees who later returned to Europe.

Based on his genealogical research of the period from to , Dr. Johannes Heese in his study Die Herkoms van die Afrikaners estimated an average ethnic admixture for Afrikaners of He then divided the period between and into six thirty-year blocs, and working under the assumption that earlier colonists contributed more to the gene pool, multiplied each child's bloodline by 32, 16, 8, 4, 2 and 1 according to respective period.

The degree of intermixing among Afrikaners may be attributed to the unbalanced sex ratio which existed under Dutch governance. Between and no more than women arrived at the Cape, as compared to the 1, male colonists.

These were reinforced by the familial interdependence of the Cape's credit and mortgage obligations. Approximately black families who identify as Afrikaners live in the settlement of Onverwacht established in near the mining town of Cullinan. Members of the community descend from freed slaves accompanying Voortrekkers who settled in the area. In South Africa, an Afrikaner minority party, the National Party , came to power in and enacted a series of segregationist laws favouring whites known as apartheid.

These laws allowed for the systematic persecution of opposition leaders and attempted to enforce general white supremacy by classifying all South African inhabitants into racial groups. Non-white political participation was outlawed, black citizenship revoked, and the entire public sphere, including education, residential areas, medical care and common areas such as public transportation, beaches and amenities, was segregated.

After a long series of negotiations involving the apartheid government under President Frederik Willem de Klerk the ANC under Nelson Mandela , and other parties [89] a democratic, multi-racial election was held, transitioning power from the National Party to the African National Congress.

Efforts are being made by some Afrikaners to secure minority rights even though protection of minority rights is fundamental to the new post-apartheid Constitution of South Africa. These efforts include the Volkstaat movement. In contrast, a handful of Afrikaners have joined the ruling African National Congress party, which is overwhelmingly supported by South Africa's black majority.

Employment Equity legislation favours employment of black African, Indian, Chinese and Coloured population groups, white women, disabled people South Africans over white men. Black Economic Empowerment legislation further favours blacks as the government considers ownership, employment, training and social responsibility initiatives which empower black South Africans as important criteria when awarding tenders.

However, private enterprise adheres to this legislation voluntarily. Genocide Watch has theorised that farm attacks constitute early warning signs of genocide against Afrikaners and has criticised the South African government for its inaction on the issue, pointing out that the murder rate for them "ethno-European farmers" in their report, which also included non-Afrikaner farmers of European race is four times that of the general South African population.

Since , there has been significant emigration of white people from South Africa. There are thus currently large Afrikaner and English-speaking South African communities in the UK and other developed countries. Between , more than one million South Africans have emigrated overseas, citing violent and racially motivated black on white crime as the main reason.

North Eastern Congo to develop efficient commercial farming there. There were , speakers of Afrikaans in Namibia, forming 9. However the majority of these speakers come from the Coloured and Baster communities. A large number of young Afrikaners are taking advantage of working holiday visas made available by the United Kingdom, as well as the Netherlands and Belgium , to gain work experience.

The scheme under which UK working holiday visas were issued ended on 27 November and has been replaced by the Tier 5 Youth Mobility visa. As of , Georgia is encouraging Afrikaner immigration to assist in reviving the country's agriculture industry, which has fallen on hard times.

Various national Christian events are widely attended, the most recent was held by Angus Buchan in Bloemfontein with over a million people, mostly Afrikaners [99].

The Afrikaans language changed over time from the Dutch spoken by the first white settlers at the Cape. From the late 17th century, the form of Dutch spoken at the Cape developed differences, mostly in morphology but also in pronunciation and accent and, to a lesser extent, in syntax and vocabulary, from that of the Netherlands, although the languages are still similar enough to be mutually intelligible.

Settlers who arrived speaking German and French soon shifted to using Dutch and later Afrikaans. The process of language change was influenced by the languages spoken by slaves, Khoikhoi and people of mixed descent, as well as by Cape Malay , Zulu , British and Portuguese. While the Dutch of the Netherlands remained the official language, the new dialect, often known as Cape Dutch, African Dutch, "kitchen Dutch", or taal meaning "language" in Afrikaans developed into a separate language by the 19th century, with much work done by the Genootskap van Regte Afrikaners and other writers such as Cornelis Jacobus Langenhoven.

In a act of Parliament, Afrikaans was given equal status with Dutch as one of the two official languages English being the second of the Union of South Africa. There was much objection to the attempt to legislate the creation of Afrikaans as a new language.

Marthinus Steyn , a prominent jurist and politician, and others were vocal in their opposition. Today, Afrikaans is recognised as one of the eleven official languages of the new South Africa , and is the third largest mother tongue spoken in South Africa. In June , the Department of Basic Education included Afrikaans as an African language to be compulsory for all pupils, according to a new policy. Afrikaners have a long literary tradition, and have produced a number of notable novelists and poets, including Nobel Prize winner J.

Langenhoven and Etienne Leroux. Music is probably the most popular art form among Afrikaners. While the traditional Boeremusiek "Boer music" and Volkspele "people games" folk dancing enjoyed popularity in the past, most Afrikaners today favour a variety of international genres and light popular Afrikaans music.

American country and western music has enjoyed great popularity and has a strong following among many South Africans. Some also enjoy a social dance event called a sokkie. There is also an underground rock music movement and bands like the controversial Fokofpolisiekar have a large following. The television Channel MK channel also supports local Afrikaans music and mainly screens videos from the Afrikaans Rock genre. Rugby , cricket and golf are generally considered to be the most popular sports among Afrikaners.

Rugby in particular is considered one of the central pillars of the Afrikaner community. The national rugby team, the Springboks , did not compete in the first two rugby world cups in and because of anti-apartheid sporting boycotts of South Africa but later on the Springboks won the and Rugby World Cups. Boere-sport also played a big role in the Afrikaner history.

It consisted of a variety of sports like tug of war , three-legged races, jukskei , skilpadloop tortoise walk and other games. The world's first ounce-denominated gold coin, the Krugerrand , was struck at the South African Mint on 3 July In April , the South African Mint coined a collectors R1 gold coin commemorating the Afrikaner people as part of its cultural series, depicting the Great Trek across the Drakensberg mountains.

Die Voortrekkers is a youth movement for Afrikaners in South Africa and Namibia with a membership of over 10 active members to promote cultural values, maintaining norms and standards as Christians, and being accountable members of public society.

Smaller numbers are involved in nationalist or separatist political organisations. The Freedom Front Plus is an Afrikaner ethnic political party which lobbies for minority rights to be granted to all of the South African ethnic minorities. The Freedom Front Plus is also leading the Volkstaat initiative and is closely associated with the small town of Orania. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Afrikaner disambiguation. English various Bantu languages.

Distribution of white South Africans. Dutch Empire and Dutch Cape Colony. South West Africa and White Namibians. South Africa under apartheid. Brain drain in South Africa. South African protest music. This section needs to be updated.

Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. Retrieved 24 August Census in brief PDF. Archived PDF from the original on 13 May The number of people who described themselves as white in terms of population group and specified their first language as Afrikaans in South Africa's Census was 2,, The total white population with a first language specified was 4,, and the total population was 51,, Retrieved 18 March Okavango Delta - Chobe - Northern Kalahari ed.

Bradt Travel Guides Ltd. Retrieved 8 August Excel file — Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved 12 May James Louis Garvin, editor. Die herkoms van die Afrikaner, — [ The origin of the Afrikaner ] in Afrikaans. Selected writings of Hans den Besten. History of the Colony of the Cape of Good Hope: From Its Discovery to the Year ed. David Philip Pty Ltd.

The Dutch in Asia ed. David Philip Publishers Pty Ltd. The Tribe that Washed its Spears: The Zulus at War ed. The Making of a City ed. The Atlantic World ed. Slavery in Dutch South Africa ed. Cecil Rhodes and the Cape Afrikaners: One Europe, many nations: Retrieved 25 May Martin, Faith Negotiating Loyalties: Origin of the Anglo-Boer War Revealed: The Conspiracy of the 19th Century Unmasked ed. Words that rhyme with Afrikaner.

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