He usually appeared in public standing upright, supported on one side by an aide or one of his sons. Glynn , he faced a formidable opponent in the Tammany-backed James W. Wallace — Harry S. Ability to select any pivot type e. January 26, , pages ; Part II:
Empowered by the public's apparent vote of confidence in his administration, the first item on Roosevelt's agenda in the 74th Congress was the creation of a social insurance program.
Roosevelt insisted that it should be funded by payroll taxes rather than from the general fund, saying, "We put those payroll contributions there so as to give the contributors a legal, moral, and political right to collect their pensions and unemployment benefits. With those taxes in there, no damn politician can ever scrap my social security program. But for the first time the federal government took responsibility for the economic security of the aged, the temporarily unemployed, dependent children, and the handicapped.
Roosevelt consolidated the various relief organizations, though some, like the PWA, continued to exist. Under the leadership of Harry Hopkins, the WPA employed over three million people in its first year of existence.
The WPA undertook numerous construction projects and provided funding to the National Youth Administration and arts organizations. Senator Robert Wagner wrote the National Labor Relations Act , which guaranteed workers the rights to collective bargaining through unions of their own choice.
The Wagner Act did not compel employers to reach agreement with their employees, but it opened possibilities for American labor.
While the First New Deal of had broad support from most sectors, the Second New Deal challenged the business community. Burns suggests that Roosevelt's policy decisions were guided more by pragmatism than ideology, and that he "was like the general of a guerrilla army whose columns, fighting blindly in the mountains through dense ravines and thickets, suddenly converge, half by plan and half by coincidence, and debouch into the plain below.
But above all, try something. Though 8 million workers remained unemployed in , economic conditions had improved since and Roosevelt was widely popular. An attempt by Huey Long and other individuals to organize a left-wing alternative to the Democratic Party collapsed after Long's death in In the presidential election against Republican Alf Landon and a third party candidate, Roosevelt won The election also saw the consolidation of the New Deal coalition; while the Democrats lost some of their traditional allies in big business, they were replaced by groups such as organized labor and African Americans, the latter of whom voted Democratic for the first time since the Civil War.
He won 86 percent of the Jewish vote, 81 percent of Catholics, 80 percent of union members, 76 percent of Southerners, 76 percent of Blacks in northern cities, and 75 percent of people on relief.
Roosevelt carried of the nation's cities with a population of , or more. The Supreme Court became Roosevelt's primary domestic focus during his second term after the court overturned many of his programs, including NIRA. The more conservative members of the court upheld the principles of the Lochner era , which saw numerous economic regulations struck down on the basis of freedom of contract.
The size of the Court had been set at nine since the passage of the Judiciary Act of , and Congress had altered the number of Justices six other times throughout U.
Starting with the case of West Coast Hotel Co. Parrish , the court began to take a more favorable view of economic regulations. That same year, Roosevelt appointed a Supreme Court Justice for the first time, and by , seven of the nine Justices had been appointed by Roosevelt. Jackson , Hugo Black , and William O. Douglas , would be particularly influential in re-shaping the jurisprudence of the Court. With Roosevelt's influence on the wane following the failure of the Judicial Procedures Reform Bill of , conservative Democrats joined with Republicans to block the implementation of further New Deal programs.
The FLSA outlawed child labor , established a federal minimum wage , and required overtime pay for certain employees who work in excess of forty-hours per week. This managed to eventually create as many as 3. Beyond this, however, Roosevelt recommended to a special congressional session only a permanent national farm act, administrative reorganization, and regional planning measures, all of which were leftovers from a regular session.
According to Burns, this attempt illustrated Roosevelt's inability to decide on a basic economic program. Determined to overcome the opposition of conservative Democrats in Congress, Roosevelt became involved in the Democratic primaries, actively campaigning for challengers who were more supportive of New Deal reform.
Roosevelt failed badly, managing to defeat only one target, a conservative Democrat from New York City. When Congress reconvened in , Republicans under Senator Robert Taft formed a Conservative coalition with Southern Democrats, virtually ending Roosevelt's ability to enact his domestic proposals.
Roosevelt had a lifelong interest in the environment and conservation starting with his youthful interest in forestry on his family estate. Although Roosevelt was never an outdoorsman or sportsman on Theodore Roosevelt's scale, his growth of the national systems were comparable. Every state had its own state parks, and Roosevelt made sure that WPA and CCC projects were set up to upgrade them as well as the national systems.
Government spending increased from 8. It increased in "a depression within a depression" but continually declined after The main foreign policy initiative of Roosevelt's first term was the Good Neighbor Policy , which was a re-evaluation of U.
After Roosevelt took office, he withdrew U. In December , Roosevelt signed the Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States, renouncing the right to intervene unilaterally in the affairs of Latin American countries. The rejection of the Treaty of Versailles during the Wilson administration marked the dominance of isolationism in American foreign policy. Despite Roosevelt's Wilsonian background, he and Secretary of State Cordell Hull acted with great care not to provoke isolationist sentiment.
The isolationist movement was bolstered in the early to mids by Senator Gerald Nye and others who succeeded in their effort to stop the "merchants of death" in the U. Germany annexed Austria in , and soon turned its attention to its eastern neighbors. The Fall of France in June shocked the American public, and isolationist sentiment declined. Both parties gave support to his plans for a rapid build-up of the American military, but the isolationists warned that Roosevelt would get the nation into an unnecessary war with Germany.
The size of the army would increase from , men at the end of to 1. In the months prior to the July Democratic National Convention , there was much speculation as to whether Roosevelt would run for an unprecedented third term.
The two-term tradition, although not yet enshrined in the Constitution , [h] had been established by George Washington when he refused to run for a third term in the presidential election. Roosevelt refused to give a definitive statement as to his willingness to be a candidate again, and he even indicated to some ambitious Democrats, such as James Farley, that he would not run for a third term and that they could seek the Democratic nomination.
However, as Germany swept through Western Europe and menaced Britain in mid, Roosevelt decided that only he had the necessary experience and skills to see the nation safely through the Nazi threat. He was aided by the party's political bosses, who feared that no Democrat except Roosevelt could defeat Wendell Willkie , the popular Republican nominee.
At the July Democratic Convention in Chicago, Roosevelt easily swept aside challenges from Farley and Vice President Garner, who had turned against Roosevelt in his second term because of his liberal economic and social policies. But Roosevelt insisted that without Wallace on the ticket he would decline re-nomination, and Wallace won the vice-presidential nomination, defeating Speaker of the House William B.
Bankhead and other candidates. A late August poll taken by Gallup found the race to be essentially tied, but Roosevelt's popularity surged in September following the announcement of the Destroyers for Bases Agreement. Roosevelt's third term was dominated by World War II. By , re-armament was in high gear, partly to expand and re-equip the Army and Navy and partly to become the " Arsenal of Democracy " for Britain and other countries. Thus, Roosevelt had committed the U.
Through the use of news, film and radio broadcast media in the United States, Roosevelt sought to enhance his Good Neighbor policy, promote Pan-Americanism and forestall military hostility in Latin America through the use of cultural diplomacy. In August , Roosevelt and Churchill conducted a highly secret bilateral meeting in which they drafted the Atlantic Charter , conceptually outlining global wartime and postwar goals. This would be the first of several wartime conferences ;  Churchill and Roosevelt would meet ten more times in person.
Navy would assume an escort role for Allied convoys in the Atlantic as far east as Great Britain and would fire upon German ships or submarines U-boats of the Kriegsmarine if they entered the U. This "shoot on sight" policy effectively declared naval war on Germany and was favored by Americans by a margin of 2-to After the German invasion of Poland, the primary concern of both Roosevelt and his top military staff was on the war in Europe, but Japan also presented foreign policy challenges.
Relations with Japan had continually deteriorated since its invasion of Manchuria in , and they had further worsened with Roosevelt's support of China. The pact bound each country to defend the others against attack, and Germany, Japan, and Italy became known as the Axis powers. The Japanese were incensed by the embargo and Japanese leaders became determined to attack the United States unless it lifted the embargo.
The Roosevelt administration was unwilling to reverse policy, and Secretary of State Hull blocked a potential summit between Roosevelt and Prime Minister Fumimaro Konoe. At the same time, separate Japanese task forces attacked Thailand , British Hong Kong , the Philippines, and other targets.
Roosevelt called for war in his famous " Infamy Speech " to Congress, in which he said: On December 11, , Hitler and Mussolini declared war on the United States, which responded in kind. A majority of scholars have rejected the conspiracy theories that Roosevelt, or any other high government officials, knew in advance about the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
Senior American officials were aware that war was imminent, but they did not expect an attack on Pearl Harbor. In late December Churchill and Roosevelt met at the Arcadia Conference , which established a joint strategy between the U.
Both agreed on a Europe first strategy that prioritized the defeat of Germany before Japan. In , Roosevelt formed a new body, the Joint Chiefs of Staff , which made the final decisions on American military strategy. Marshall led the Army and was in nominal control of the Air Force, which in practice was commanded by General Hap Arnold. Leahy , the most senior officer in the military. Roosevelt avoided the State Department and conducted high level diplomacy through his aides, especially Harry Hopkins, whose influence was bolstered by his control of the Lend Lease funds.
Szilard realized that the recently discovered process of nuclear fission could be used to create a nuclear chain reaction that could be used as a weapon of mass destruction. Roosevelt and Churchill agreed to jointly pursue the project, and Roosevelt helped ensure that American scientists cooperated with their British counterparts.
The Allies formulated strategy in a series of high-profile conferences as well as by contact through diplomatic and military channels. In November , Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin met to discuss strategy and post-war plans at the Tehran Conference , where Roosevelt met Stalin for the first time. Subsequent conferences at Bretton Woods and Dumbarton Oaks established the framework for the post-war international monetary system and the United Nations , an intergovernmental organization similar to Wilson's failed League of Nations.
With the end of the war in Europe approaching, Roosevelt's primary focus was on convincing Stalin to enter the war against Japan; the Joint Chiefs had estimated that an American invasion of Japan would cause as many as one million American casualties. In return for the Soviet Union's entrance into the war against Japan, the Soviet Union was promised control of Asian territories such as Sakhalin Island.
The three leaders agreed to hold a conference in to establish the United Nations, and they also agreed on the structure of the United Nations Security Council , which would be charged with ensuring international peace and security. Roosevelt did not push for the immediate evacuation of Soviet soldiers from Poland, but he won the issuance of the Declaration on Liberated Europe, which promised free elections in countries that had been occupied by Germany.
Germany itself would not be dismembered, but would be jointly occupied by the United States, France, Britain, and the Soviet Union. At the conference, Roosevelt also announced that he would only accept the unconditional surrender of Germany, Japan, and Italy. Eisenhower , who had successfully commanded a multinational coalition in North Africa and Sicily. Supported by 12, aircraft and the largest naval force ever assembled, the Allies successfully established a beachhead in Normandy and then advanced further into France.
After most of France had been liberated from German occupation, Roosevelt granted formal recognition to de Gaulle's government in October In the opening weeks of the war, Japan conquered the Philippines and the British and Dutch colonies in Southeast Asia.
The Japanese advance reached its maximum extent by June , when the U. Navy scored a decisive victory at the Battle of Midway. American and Australian forces then began a slow and costly strategy called island hopping or leapfrogging through the Pacific Islands, with the objective of gaining bases from which strategic airpower could be brought to bear on Japan and from which Japan could ultimately be invaded.
In contrast to Hitler, Roosevelt took no direct part in the tactical naval operations, though he approved strategic decisions. The strength of the Japanese navy was decimated in the Battle of Leyte Gulf , and by April the Allies had re-captured much of their lost territory in the Pacific. The home front was subject to dynamic social changes throughout the war, though domestic issues were no longer Roosevelt's most urgent policy concern. The military buildup spurred economic growth.
Unemployment fell in half from 7. African Americans from the South went to California and other West Coast states for new jobs in the defense industry. To pay for increased government spending, in Roosevelt proposed that Congress enact an income tax rate of In , with the United States now in the conflict, war production increased dramatically, but fell short of the goals established by the president, due in part to manpower shortages.
The production capacity of the United States dwarfed that of other countries; for example, in , the United States produced more military aircraft than the combined production of Germany, Japan, Britain, and the Soviet Union. Jones , in charge of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation ; both agencies assumed responsibility for acquisition of rubber supplies and came to loggerheads over funding.
Roosevelt resolved the dispute by dissolving both agencies. Byrnes , who came to be known as the "assistant president" due to his influence. Bill , which would create a massive benefits program for returning soldiers. Benefits included post-secondary education , medical care, unemployment insurance, job counseling, and low-cost loans for homes and businesses.
Bill passed unanimously in both houses of Congress and was signed into law in June Of the fifteen million Americans who served in World War II, more than half benefitted from the educational opportunities provided for in the G.
Roosevelt, a chain-smoker throughout his entire adult life,   had been in declining physical health since at least In March , shortly after his 62nd birthday, he underwent testing at Bethesda Hospital and was found to have high blood pressure , atherosclerosis , coronary artery disease causing angina pectoris , and congestive heart failure.
Hospital physicians and two outside specialists ordered Roosevelt to rest. His personal physician, Admiral Ross McIntire, created a daily schedule that banned business guests for lunch and incorporated two hours of rest each day. During the re-election campaign, McIntire denied several times that Roosevelt's health was poor; on October 12, for example, he announced that "The President's health is perfectly OK.
There are absolutely no organic difficulties at all. While some Democrats had opposed Roosevelt's nomination in , the president faced little difficulty in securing his re-nomination at the Democratic National Convention. Roosevelt made it clear before the convention that he was seeking another term, and on the lone presidential ballot of the convention Roosevelt won the vast majority of delegates, although a minority of Southern Democrats voted for Harry F. Party leaders prevailed upon Roosevelt to drop Vice President Wallace from the ticket, believing him to be an electoral liability and a poor potential successor in case of Roosevelt's death.
Truman of Missouri, who had earned renown for his investigation of war production inefficiency and was acceptable to the various factions of the party. On the second vice presidential ballot of the convention, Truman defeated Wallace to win the nomination. The Republicans nominated Thomas E. Dewey , the governor of New York, who had a reputation as a liberal in his party. The opposition lambasted Roosevelt and his administration for domestic corruption, bureaucratic inefficiency, tolerance of Communism, and military blunders.
Labor unions, which had grown rapidly in the war, fully supported Roosevelt. Roosevelt and Truman won the election by a comfortable margin, defeating Dewey and his running mate John W.
When Roosevelt returned to the United States from the Yalta Conference, many were shocked to see how old, thin and frail he looked. He spoke while seated in the well of the House, an unprecedented concession to his physical incapacity. When Stalin accused the western Allies of plotting behind his back a separate peace with Hitler, Roosevelt replied: On the afternoon of April 12, Roosevelt said, "I have a terrific headache.
The president's attending cardiologist, Dr. Howard Bruenn, diagnosed the medical emergency as a massive cerebral hemorrhage. On the morning of April 13, Roosevelt's body was placed in a flag-draped coffin and loaded onto the presidential train for the trip back to Washington. Along the route, thousands flocked to the tracks to pay their respects.
Roosevelt's declining physical health had been kept secret from the general public. His death was met with shock and grief across the U.
Roosevelt had lived to witness this day". Truman would preside over the demobilization of the war effort and the establishment of the United Nations and other postwar institutions envisioned during Roosevelt's presidency. Roosevelt was viewed as a hero by many African Americans, Catholics, and Jews, and he was highly successful in attracting large majorities of these voters into his New Deal coalition.
Sitkoff reports that the WPA "provided an economic floor for the whole black community in the s, rivaling both agriculture and domestic service as the chief source" of income. Roosevelt did not join NAACP leaders in pushing for federal anti- lynching legislation, as he believed that such legislation was unlikely to pass and that his support for it would alienate Southern congressmen. He did, however, appoint a " Black Cabinet " of African American advisers to advise on race relations and African American issues, and he publicly denounced lynching as "murder.
The FEPC was the first national program directed against employment discrimination , and it played a major role in opening up new employment opportunities to non-white workers.
The attack on Pearl Harbor raised concerns in the public regarding the possibility of sabotage by Japanese Americans. This suspicion was fed by long-standing racism against Japanese immigrants, as well as the findings of the Roberts Commission , which concluded that the attack on Pearl Harbor had been assisted by Japanese spies. On February 19, , President Roosevelt signed Executive Order , which relocated hundreds of thousands of the Japanese-American citizens and immigrants.
They were forced to liquidate their properties and businesses and interned in hastily built camps in interior, harsh locations. Distracted by other issues, Roosevelt had delegated the decision for internment to Secretary of War Stimson, who in turn relied on the judgment of Assistant Secretary of War John J. The Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the executive order in the case of Korematsu v.
After Kristallnacht in , Roosevelt helped expedite Jewish immigration from Germany and allowed Austrian and German citizens already in the United States to stay indefinitely. He was prevented from accepting more Jewish immigrants by the restrictive Immigration Act of , the prevalence of nativism and antisemitism among voters and members of Congress, and some resistance in the American Jewish community to the acceptance of Eastern European Jewish immigrants.
Against the objections of the State Department, Roosevelt convinced the other Allied leaders to jointly issue the Joint Declaration by Members of the United Nations , which condemned the ongoing Holocaust and promised to try its perpetrators as war criminals. Aside from these actions, Roosevelt believed that the best way to help the persecuted populations of Europe was to end the war as quickly as possible. Top military leaders and War Department leaders rejected any campaign to bomb the extermination camps or the rail lines leading to the camps, fearing it would be a diversion from the war effort.
According to biographer Jean Edward Smith, there is no evidence that anyone ever proposed such a campaign to Roosevelt. Roosevelt is widely considered to be one of the most important figures in the history of the United States ,  as well as one of the most influential figures of the 20th century.
The rapid expansion of government programs that occurred during Roosevelt's term redefined the role of the government in the United States, and Roosevelt's advocacy of government social programs was instrumental in redefining liberalism for coming generations. His isolationist critics faded away, and even the Republicans joined in his overall policies. Many members of his administration played leading roles in the administrations of Truman, Kennedy and Johnson , each of whom embraced Roosevelt's political legacy.
During his presidency, and continuing to a lesser extent afterwards, there has been much criticism of Roosevelt , some of it intense. Critics have questioned not only his policies, positions , and the consolidation of power that occurred due to his responses to the crises of the Depression and World War II, but also his breaking with tradition by running for a third term as president.
The largest, the 7. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. John Nance Garner — Henry A. Wallace — Harry S. James Roosevelt I Sara Roosevelt. Roosevelt family Delano family. A young, unbreeched Roosevelt in , 2 years old [a]. Roosevelt in , at the age of Governorship of Franklin D. United States presidential election, Presidency of Franklin D. First and second terms of the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt Supreme Court candidates and Hughes Court.
Third and fourth terms of the presidency of Franklin D. Events leading to the attack on Pearl Harbor. History of nuclear weapons and Nuclear weapons of the United States. Diplomatic history of World War II. United States presidential election, and Democratic Party vice presidential candidate selection, Last photograph of Roosevelt, taken April 11, , the day before his death. Roosevelt's funeral procession in Washington, D. Roosevelt's record on civil rights. Dime with a portrait of Roosevelt; popularly known as the Roosevelt dime.
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Or you boast of several years of experience, the forex strategy builder is what you.. Cosa E Un Forex. This chart is uncluttered, easy to understand and to navigate, with nothing to distract you from ysing price action. What are the best trading strategy blogs on the web? Fessenden's basic approach was disclosed in U. Patent ,, which he applied for on May 29, , and was issued the next year.
It called for the use of a high-speed alternator referred to as "an alternating-current dynamo" that generated "pure sine waves" and produced "a continuous train of radiant waves of substantially uniform strength", or, in modern terminology, a continuous-wave CW transmitter. John Ambrose Fleming , a Marconi associate, was particularly dismissive in his book The Principles of Electric Wave Telegraphy , a detailed review of the state of the art as he saw it that was published in Reviewing Fessenden's patent, he wrote that "The creation of an electric wave seems to involve a certain suddenness in the beginning of the oscillations, and an alternator giving a simple sine-curve would not be likely to produce the required effect Fessenden's next step, taken from standard wire-telephone practice, was to insert a simple carbon microphone into the transmission line, which was used to modulate the carrier wave signal for audio transmissions, or, again using modern terms, used to produce amplitude modulated AM radio signals.
Fessenden began his research on audio transmissions while still on Cobb Island. Because he did not yet have a continuous-wave transmitter, initially he worked with an experimental "high-frequency spark" transmitter, taking advantage of the fact that the higher the spark rate, the closer a spark-gap transmission comes to producing continuous waves.
He later reported that, in the fall of , he successfully transmitted speech over a distance of about 1. However, at this time the sound was far too distorted to be commercially practical, although as a test this did show that with further refinements it would become possible to effectively transmit sounds by radio. For a time Fessenden continued working with more sophisticated high-frequency spark transmitters, including versions that used compressed air, which began to take on some of the characteristics of arc-transmitters patented by Valdemar Poulsen.
Fessenden's ultimate plan for an audio-capable transmitter was to take a basic electrical alternator , which normally rotated at speeds that produced alternating current of at most a few hundred cycles-per-second hz , and greatly increase its rotational speed, in order to create electrical currents of tens-of-thousands of cycles-per-second kHz , thus producing a steady continuous-wave transmission when connected to an aerial.
However, it would take many years of expensive development before even a prototype alternator-transmitter would be ready, and a few years beyond that for high-power versions to become available. One concern was whether at these high speeds the alternator might disintegrate due to the high rotation speed tearing it apart.
Because of this, as a precaution, while the alternator was being initially developed it was "placed in a pit surrounded by sandbags". Fessenden contracted with General Electric GE to help design and produce a series of high-frequency alternator-transmitters. Fessenden's request for a faster, more powerful unit was assigned to Ernst F. The alternator-transmitter achieved the goal of transmitting quality audio signals, but the lack of any way to amplify the signals meant they were somewhat weak.
On December 21, , Fessenden made an extensive demonstration of the new alternator-transmitter at Brant Rock, showing its utility for point-to-point wireless telephony, including interconnecting his stations to the wire telephone network. As part of the demonstration, speech was transmitted 18 kilometers 11 miles to a listening site at Plymouth, Massachusetts. A detailed review of this demonstration appeared in The American Telephone Journal  and a summary by Fessenden appeared in Scientific American.
Pickard of the Telephone Company's Boston office, which includes additional information on some still existing defects, appeared in Ernst Ruhmer 's Wireless Telephony in Theory and Practice.
Although primarily designed for transmissions spanning a few kilometers, on a couple of occasions the test Brant Rock audio transmissions were apparently overheard by NESCO employee James C. Armor across the Atlantic at the Machrihanish site. Until the earlys, it was generally accepted that Lee de Forest , who conducted a series of test broadcasts beginning in , and who was widely quoted promoting the potential of organized radio broadcasting, was the first person to transmit music and entertainment by radio.
De Forest's first entertainment broadcast occurred in February , when he transmitted electronic telharmonium music from his laboratory station in New York City. Navy had broadcast daily time signals and weather reports, but these employed spark transmitters, transmitting in Morse code. Davis, commenting on entertainment offerings, asserted that "Reginald Fessenden, probably the first to attempt this, broadcast a program Christmas Eve ",  but didn't provide any additional details, and his comment was little noticed at the time.
The first widely publicized information about Fessenden's early broadcasts did not appear until , when an article prepared by former Fessenden associate Samuel M. Fessenden subsequently died five months before Kintner's article appeared.
In this account, Fessenden reported that on the evening of December 24, Christmas Eve , he had made the first of two radio broadcasts of music and entertainment to a general audience, using the alternator-transmitter at Brant Rock. Fessenden remembered producing a short program that included a phonograph record of Ombra mai fu Largo by George Frideric Handel , followed by Fessenden playing Adolphe Adam 's carol O Holy Night on the violin and singing Adore and be Still by Gounod , and closing with a biblical passage: He also stated that a second short program was broadcast on December 31 New Year's Eve.
The intended audience for both of these transmissions was primarily shipboard radio operators along the Atlantic seaboard. Fessenden claimed that the two programs had been widely publicized in advance, and the Christmas Eve broadcast had been heard "as far down" as Norfolk, Virginia , while the New Year Eve's broadcast had reached listeners in the West Indies.
Anticipation of the centennial anniversary of Fessenden's reported broadcasts brought renewed interest, as well as additional questions. A key issue was why, despite Fessenden's assertion that the two programs had been widely heard, there did not appear to be any independent corroborating evidence for his account.
Even the Helen Fessenden biography relies exclusively on details contained in the January 29, letter used by the Kintner article. There was general consensus in the centennial discussions that Fessenden had the technical means to make broadcasts, given the widespread reports about the success of the December 21 alternator-transmitter demonstrations. However, because of the station's very low power, even if the broadcasts had taken place it was questionable if the range could have matched Fessenden's claim of being heard hundreds of kilometers away.
In the period leading up to the centennial, James E. O'Neal conducted extensive research, but did not find any ships' radio log accounts, or any contemporary literature, to confirm the reported holiday broadcasts. One alternate possibility proposed by O'Neal was that perhaps something similar to what Fessenden remembered could have taken place during a series of tests conducted in Halper and Christopher H.
Sterling suggested that debating the existence of the holiday broadcasts was ignoring the fact that, in their opinion, the December 21 demonstration, which included the playing of a phonograph record, in itself qualified to be considered an entertainment broadcast.
The American Telephone Journal account of the December 21 alternator-transmitter demonstration included the statement that "It is admirably adapted to the transmission of news, music, etc. It is proposed to erect stations for this purpose in the large cities here and abroad. In a comprehensive review of "Wireless Telephony", he included a section titled "possibilities" that listed promising radio telephone uses. Neither the main article, nor this list, makes any reference to broadcasting, instead only noting conventional applications of point-to-point communication, enumerated as "local exchanges", "long-distance lines", "transmarine transmission", "wireless telephony from ship to ship", and "wireless telephone from ship to local exchange".
The technical achievements made by Fessenden were not matched by financial success. There were growing strains between Fessenden and the company owners, and Fessenden's formation of the Fessenden Wireless Company of Canada in Montreal in may have led to suspicion that he was trying to freeze Walker and Given out of a potentially lucrative competing transatlantic service.
The legal stalemate would continue for over 15 years. Finally, on March 31, , Fessenden settled his outstanding lawsuits with RCA, receiving a significant cash settlement.
He eventually developed the high-powered Alexanderson alternator , capable of transmitting across the Atlantic, and by the Fessenden-Alexanderson alternator was more reliable for transoceanic communication than the spark transmitters which were originally used to provide this service.
Also, after radio broadcasting became widespread, and although the stations used vacuum-tube transmitters rather than alternator-transmitters which vacuum-tubes made obsolete , they employed the same continuous-wave AM signals that Fessenden had introduced in Although Fessenden ceased radio research after his dismissal from NESCO in , he continued to work in other fields.
However, his most extensive work was in marine communication, in conjunction with the Submarine Signal Company. While there, he helped develop a type of sonar system, the Fessenden oscillator , for submarines to signal each other, as well as a method for locating icebergs, to help avoid another disaster like the one that sank Titanic.
In these efforts, akin to his replacing spark-gap with continuous-wave radio transmitters, he had the company replace devices that rang bells with ones that transmitted a steady tone. At the outbreak of World War I , Fessenden volunteered his services to the Canadian government and was sent to London where he developed a device to detect enemy artillery and another to locate enemy submarines. He also patented the basic ideas leading to reflection seismology , a technique important for its use in exploring for petroleum, and received patents for diverse subjects that included tracer bullets , paging, television apparatus, and a turbo electric drive for ships.
An inveterate tinkerer, Fessenden eventually became the holder of more than patents.