A Land of Contrasts


Farther north the country levels out; the flat plains of the northeastern Bharatpur district are part of an alluvial basin. Eine permanente Kontonummer permanent account number, PAN ist für das Erstellen einer Einkommensteuererklärung zwingend notwendig. Gupta's sentences are sober enough, and yet he sounds almost intoxicated: Consent form to be signed by the applicant.

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Gupta's sentences are sober enough, and yet he sounds almost intoxicated: Theoretically, there is no limit. Evalueserve is a showpiece company in the new India. While China is growing through low-cost industrial products, India in growing through cheap services: According to Gupta, there is absolutely no doubt that India is becoming a global power.

The Indian economic miracle began in , when Ashish Gupta was still a student. Manmohan Singh, the finance minister at the time and India's prime minister today, jettisoned the "democratic socialism" of the country's founding fathers. Until he came into office, large sectors of Indian industry were still state-owned. Singh began privatizing companies and liberalizing markets. The IT industry has been booming since the late s, and the economy as a whole has grown by an average of 8 percent a year in the last five years.

At Evalueserve more than people, most of them under 30, work in a single room, sitting at long rows of yellow desks and staring at computer screens. One of them is Senior Analyst Andrea Demsic, a year-old blonde with cherubic cheeks and a contented smile, who works in the company's Business Research department.

She comes from the southwestern German town of Schwäbisch-Gmünd and speaks the Swabian dialect. After earning a degree in economics from the University of Jena in eastern Germany, she says, it was relatively difficult to find a job in Germany.

One day she saw a job posting at her local employment office: Seeking analyst for overseas position. She applied for the position and, a year and a half ago, ended up in Gurgaon. She was promoted after the first year. She says that she could imagine staying in India for a while longer. She is impressed by the ambition of her Indian coworkers, and by the city being built around her. Everyone wants to achieve something. There are opportunities to climb up the corporate ladder in India. It's so different from Germany.

Thirty-six foreigners work at Evalueserve, and their numbers are also increasing in other Indian companies. Ashish Gupta, the COO, smiles. He needs people who know Europe and speak its languages perfectly, because his customers come from Europe.

But he is also happy with the message he is sending to the world: Instead of hiring exclusively Indians to work for the West, Indian companies are now also creating jobs for Western workers. His wife and two sons were sound asleep when Punjaram Kubde, a farmer, got up in the night and went into the next room, where he kept sacks of seed, fertilizer and poison.

He poured himself a cup of pesticide and drank it. His wife found him dead on the stone floor the next morning. Now his body lies underneath a pile of wood that the men and women of Chondha have assembled on a green hill in front of the village.

They have painted his face purple, brought him flowers, rice and coins for his journey into the next world, and wrapped his body in a white sheet. About people have come to attend his cremation. Their faces are serious. Kubde's is the first case of a farmer taking his life in their village. Some say that if it doesn't rain soon his suicide will not have been the last. Chondha is in Vidarbha, in the middle of India and one of the country's poorest regions.

This year alone, farmers have already killed themselves in Vidarbha. Last year there were more than 1, suicides. Almost all of the men used pesticides, while a few set themselves on fire.

The wife of the dead farmer sobs quietly, her body trembling. Her name is Lalita and she is wearing the orange sari she reserves for special occasions. She is only 30, young and beautiful, but she will remain a widow for the rest of her life. Village rules forbid widows from remarrying. Sagar, the couple's eldest son, is A man helps him hold a burning bundle of straw, which he must use to ignite the funeral pyre.

Then the men and women of Chondha walk around the fire, throwing in sticks. Punjaram Kubde was an important man. He owned 12 hectares 30 acres of land, a large house and a motorcycle. He was 45, a powerful man with a mustache and, like most men here, he was a cotton farmer. Mount Abu lies at the southwestern end of the range, separated from the main ranges by the West Banas River , although a series of broken ridges continues into Haryana in the direction of Delhi where it can be seen as outcrops in the form of the Raisina Hill and the ridges farther north.

About three-fifths of Rajasthan lies northwest of the Aravallis, leaving two-fifths on the east and south direction. The northwestern portion of Rajasthan is generally sandy and dry. Most of this region is covered by the Thar Desert which extends into adjoining portions of Pakistan. The Aravalli Range does not intercept the moisture-giving southwest monsoon winds off the Arabian Sea , as it lies in a direction parallel to that of the coming monsoon winds, leaving the northwestern region in a rain shadow.

The Thar Desert is thinly populated; the town of Jodhpur is the largest city in the desert and known as the gateway of thar desert. This area is also important defence point of view. Jodhpur airbase is Indias largest airbase and military, BSF bases are also situated here. A single civil airport is also situated in Jodhpur.

The Northwestern thorn scrub forests lie in a band around the Thar Desert, between the desert and the Aravallis. The Godwar , Marwar , and Shekhawati regions lie in the thorn scrub forest zone, along with the city of Jodhpur. The Luni River and its tributaries are the major river system of Godwar and Marwar regions, draining the western slopes of the Aravallis and emptying southwest into the great Rann of Kutch wetland in neighbouring Gujarat.

This river is saline in the lower reaches and remains potable only up to Balotara in Barmer district. The Ghaggar River , which originates in Haryana , is an intermittent stream that disappears into the sands of the Thar Desert in the northern corner of the state and is seen as a remnant of the primitive Sarasvati river.

The Aravalli Range and the lands to the east and southeast of the range are generally more fertile and better watered. This region is home to the Kathiawar-Gir dry deciduous forests ecoregion, with tropical dry broadleaf forests that include teak , Acacia , and other trees.

The hilly Vagad region, home to the cities of Dungarpur and Banswara lies in southernmost Rajasthan, on the border with Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh. With the exception of Mount Abu, Vagad is the wettest region in Rajasthan, and the most heavily forested. North of Vagad lies the Mewar region, home to the cities of Udaipur and Chittaurgarh. The Hadoti region lies to the southeast, on the border with Madhya Pradesh.

North of Hadoti and Mewar lies the Dhundhar region, home to the state capital of Jaipur. Mewat , the easternmost region of Rajasthan, borders Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. Eastern and southeastern Rajasthan is drained by the Banas and Chambal rivers, tributaries of the Ganges. The northwest tract is sandy and unproductive with little water but improves gradually from desert land in the far west and northwest to comparatively fertile and habitable land towards the east.

The area includes the Thar Desert. In the southeast, a large area within the districts of Kota and Bundi forms a tableland. To the northeast of these districts is a rugged region badlands following the line of the Chambal River. Farther north the country levels out; the flat plains of the northeastern Bharatpur district are part of an alluvial basin.

Merta City lies in the geographical centre of Rajasthan. Though a large percentage of the total area is desert with little forest cover, Rajasthan has a rich and varied flora and fauna.

These occur in small clumps scattered in a more or less open form. The density and size of patches increase from west to east following the increase in rainfall. Seashells and massive fossilised tree trunks in this park record the geological history of the desert. The region is a haven for migratory and resident birds of the desert. One can see many eagles , harriers , falcons , buzzards , kestrels and vultures.

Short-toed snake eagles Circaetus gallicus , tawny eagles Aquila rapax , spotted eagles Aquila clanga , laggar falcons Falco jugger and kestrels are the commonest of these. The Ranthambore National Park located in Sawai Madhopur , [39] one of the well known tiger reserves in the country, became a part of Project Tiger in The Dhosi Hill located in the district of Jhunjunu, known as 'Chayvan Rishi's Ashram', where ' Chyawanprash ' was formulated for the first time, has unique and rare herbs growing.

The area was declared a national park in This sanctuary is home to a large population of blackbuck. Desert foxes and the caracal , an apex predator , also known as the desert lynx , can also be spotted, along with birds such as the partridge and sand grouse. Rajasthan is also noted for its national parks and wildlife sanctuaries. There are four national park and wildlife sanctuaries: A national level institute, Arid Forest Research Institute AFRI an autonomous institute of the ministry of forestry is situated in Jodhpur and continuously work on desert flora and their conservation.

At one point, due to poaching and negligence, tigers became extinct at Sariska, but five tigers have been relocated there. Rajasthan is divided into 33 districts within seven divisions:. Rajasthan's economy is primarily agricultural and pastoral. Wheat and barley are cultivated over large areas, as are pulses , sugarcane , and oilseeds.

Cotton and tobacco are the state's cash crops. Rajasthan is among the largest producers of edible oils in India and the second largest producer of oilseeds. Rajasthan is also the biggest wool -producing state in India and the main opium producer and consumer. There are mainly two crop seasons. The water for irrigation comes from wells and tanks.

The Indira Gandhi Canal irrigates northwestern Rajasthan. The main industries are mineral based, agriculture based, and textile based. Rajasthan is the second largest producer of polyester fibre in India. Several prominent chemical and engineering companies are located in the city of Kota , in southern Rajasthan.

Rajasthan is pre-eminent in quarrying and mining in India. The Taj Mahal was built from the white marble which was mined from a town called Makrana. The state is the second largest source of cement in India. It has rich salt deposits at Sambhar , copper mines at Khetri , Jhunjhunu , and zinc mines at Dariba, Zawar mines and Rampura Agucha opencast near Bhilwara.

Dimensional stone mining is also undertaken in Rajasthan. Jodhpur sandstone is mostly used in monuments, important buildings and residential buildings. This stone is termed as "chittar patthar". Jodhpur leads in Handicraft and Guar Gum industry. Rajasthan is also a part of the Mumbai-Delhi Industrial corridor is set to benefit economically.

Rajasthan is [ when? The government of India has given permission to extract , barrels of crude per day from Barmer region which is now , barrels per day. Once this limit is achieved Rajasthan will become a leader in Crude extraction in Country. Bombay High leads with a production of , barrels crude per day.

Once the limit of , barrels per day is reached, the overall production of the country will increase by 15 percent. Cairn India is doing the work of exploration and extraction of crude oil in Rajasthan.

Rajasthan also has reserves of low-silica limestone. Rajasthan is the largest producer of barley , mustard , pearl millet , coriander , fenugreek and guar in India. BhamaShah Mandi in Kota district is the Asia's largest mandi or market of coriander. Rajasthan is major producer of aloe vera , amla , oranges leading producer of maize , groundnut.

Rajasthan is 2nd in production of cumin , gram and 3rd in seed spices. The current production of olives in the state is around — tonnes annually. Rajasthan is India's second largest producer of milk. Rajasthan has dairy co-operative societies. Rajasthan is connected by many national highways. Most renowned being NH 8 , which is India's first 4—8 lane highway. All chief cities are connected by air, rail and road. These airports connect Rajasthan with the major cities of India such as Delhi and Mumbai.

Rajasthan is connected with the main cities of India by rail. However, this is not open to foreign nationals. Now in March ,75 per cent of all national highways being built in Rajasthan according to the public works minister of Rajasthan.

Religion in Rajasthan [49]. According to final results of Census of India , Rajasthan has a total population of 68,, The state of Rajasthan is also populated by Sindhis , who came to Rajasthan from Sindh province now in Pakistan during the India-Pakistan separation in As for religion, Rajasthan's residents are mainly Hindus , who account for Muslims make up 9. Languages in Rajasthan Census [10].

Hindi is the official and the most widely spoken language in the state Rajasthani and various Rajasthani dialects are counted under Hindi in the national census. In the census, standard Rajasthani had over 18 million speakers, [51] as well as millions of other speakers of Rajasthani dialects, such as Marwari.

The languages taught under the three-language formula are: Gujarati, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Sindhi or Urdu. Rajasthan is culturally rich and has artistic and cultural traditions which reflect the ancient Indian way of life. There is rich and varied folk culture from villages which are often depicted as a symbol of the state.

Highly cultivated classical music and dance with its own distinct style is part of the cultural tradition of Rajasthan.

The music has songs that depict day-to-day relationships and chores, often focused around fetching water from wells or ponds. Rajasthani cooking was influenced by both the war-like lifestyles of its inhabitants and the availability of ingredients in this arid region. Food that could last for several days and could be eaten without heating was preferred.

The scarcity of water and fresh green vegetables have all had their effect on the cooking. It is known for its snacks like Bikaneri Bhujia. Other famous dishes include bajre ki roti millet bread and lahsun ki chutney hot garlic paste , mawa kachori Mirchi Bada , Pyaaj Kachori and ghevar from Jodhpur, Alwar ka Mawa Milk Cake , Kadhi kachori from Ajmer, malpauas from Pushkar, Daal kachori Kota kachori from Kota and rassgollas from Bikaner.

Originating from the Marwar region of the state is the concept Marwari Bhojnalaya , or vegetarian restaurants, today found in many parts of India, which offer vegetarian food of the Marwari people. Dal-Bati-Churma is very popular in Rajasthan.

The traditional way to serve it is to first coarsely mash the Baati then pour pure Ghee on top of it. It is served with the daal lentils and spicy garlic chutney. Also served with Besan gram flour ki kadi. It is commonly served at all festivities, including religious occasions, wedding ceremonies, and birthday parties in Rajasthan. It is a typical Rajasthani dish. The Ghoomar dance from Jodhpur Marwar and Kalbeliya dance of Jaisalmer have gained international recognition. Folk music is a large part of Rajasthani culture.

Folk songs are commonly ballads which relate heroic deeds and love stories; and religious or devotional songs known as bhajans and banis which are often accompanied by musical instruments like dholak , sitar , and sarangi are also sung.

Rajasthan is known for its traditional, colourful art. The block prints, tie and dye prints, Bagaru prints, Sanganer prints, and Zari embroidery are major export products from Rajasthan. Handicraft items like wooden furniture and crafts, carpets, and blue pottery are commonly found here.

Shopping reflects the colourful culture, Rajasthani clothes have a lot of mirror work and embroidery. A Rajasthani traditional dress for females comprises an ankle-length skirt and a short top, also known as a lehenga or a chaniya choli. A piece of cloth is used to cover the head, both for protection from heat and maintenance of modesty.

Rajasthani dresses are usually designed in bright colours like blue, yellow and orange. Rajasthan's desert festival is held once a year during winter. Dressed in costumes, the people of the desert dance and sing ballads. There are fairs with snake charmers, puppeteers, acrobats and folk performers.

Camels play a role in this festival. During recent years, Rajasthan has worked on improving education. The state government has been making sustained efforts to raise the education standard. In recent decades, the literacy rate of Rajasthan has increased significantly. In , the state's literacy rate was only In , the literacy rate increased to Although Rajasthan's literacy rate is below the national average of In rural areas of Rajasthan, the literacy rate is This has been debated across all the party level, when the governor of Rajasthan set a minimum educational qualification for the village panchayat elections.

In Rajasthan, Kota , Sikar , Jodhpur are major education hubs. Kota is popularly referred to as, "coaching capital of India". Rajasthan has nine universities and more than colleges. There are 41 engineering colleges with an annual enrollment of about 11, students.

In , Central University of Rajasthan a central university fully funded by Government of India , came into force near Kishangarh in Ajmer district. Rajasthan attracted total Rajasthan is famous for its custom culture colours, majestic forts and palaces, folk dances and music, local festivals, local food, sand dunes, carved temples, beautiful havelis.

Jaipur , the Pink City, is noted for the ancient houses made of a type of sandstone dominated by a pink hue. In Jodhpur, maximum houses are painted blue. At Ajmer , there is white marble Bara-dari on the Anasagar lake. Jain Temples dot Rajasthan from north to south and east to west.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Geography of Rajasthan. This article is about the Indian state.