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The decision was essentially as follows: In the specification and claims, Selden had set forth that any type of liquid-hydrocarbon compression engine might be used. As broadly as stated the combination was not patentable. In support of this position the Court cited a number of references including both track vehicles and road vehicles as follows:. The structure of this patent included the use of a geared down chain and clutch. The Savalle patent stated, "I have tried to apply to road locomotion several motors operated by air expanded by the heat produced, either by the explosion of gas or by air forced over a metallic surface, heated by coal or other combustible, or also by petroleum.
These divers forms of motors apply perfectly when it concerns the traction of omnibuses or other large vehicles of this kind; but when it is necessary to apply this kind of locomotion to light carriages, only carrying one to six persons, or to drive a velocipede, these means become impracticable by the large space which they require.
Judge Noyes said that the Savalle patent, ". This patent referred to the difficulties of applying such engines to light carriages. A Lenoir engine of 1. The Savalle patent disclosed a cranked axle revolving at the same speed as the engine. The Kirkwood British patent," Of Rosenwald, the lower court had said, "In Rosenwald His is a paper patent only, and is in my opinion clearly shown to be inoperative for reasons of which one only may be mentioned: The most im- proved type of Otto engine then known weighed over half a ton per horsepower.
He did not use the most improved type, and did not propose any improvement or modification which would. This patent is the suggestion nearest to Selden, and is mentioned for comparison hereafter.
Concerning the Rosenwald patent the appellate court said, " It was for a carriage propelled by a non-compression gas engine. This vehicle had reducing gears and a clutch or 'disentangler. It burnt street gas. Le Monde Illustre was a French magazine. Judge Hough said of this reference, " It proves nothing that relates to the form of engine to be considered in this litigation, while the absence of all later mention proves the car a sporadic failure. The Lenoir patent embraced the use of liquid hydrocarbon in the form of a vapor, and the engine was successful for stationary purposes.
It was a non-compression engine. An illustration published in Paris in showed a vehicle propelled by this engine, and it was described in various publications. If such a motor vehicle were operated it undoubtedly ran slowly, and the engine had great weight in proportion to power. But no reason is advanced why the Lenoir engine was not capable of propelling a vehicle. As previously stated a Lenoir engine of that day would have weighed pounds to 1.
There was no suggestion in the publication that the engine was modified in any way, except that the pound flywheel, without which the engine would not run, was omitted from the drawing. There was no reduction gear and the engine shaft and vehicle wheels were disclosed as operating at the same speed. There was no testimony that the vehicle was ever built. With respect to the Brayton experiments the Court of Appeals said, "It also appears about Brayton used one of his engines to propel a street car upon a trial track near the city of Providence.
The car was propelled back and forth over the half- mile track and up a slight grade. Some passengers were carried. There were reversing and disconnecting devices. The engine was large and heavy in proportion to the power which it fur- nished, and-an accident taking place-it was not long used. More power in proportion to weight was necessary for com- mercial street railway purposes, and the plan of installing these engines was given up-financial considerations entering into this determination.
But although the experiments did not develop a commercial success, they were successful from a mechanical standpoint. The engine ran the car considerable distances and carried passengers. This use was not an abandoned experiment, but an abandoned attempt to induce the railway companies to equip the cars with the Brayton engine. The perfected structure was capable of practical use, although there was much room for improvement. It was not embryotic or inchoate. The combination of the engine, the drive and the carriage was used in public, and therefore it required the use of the initiative, and not of the inventive, faculties to claim, without modification, the same combination.
The use of the engine in one vehicle pointed directly to its use in another vehicle. With respect to the use of the Brayton engine on an omnibus, the appellate court said, as has been previously stated, that this would not be considered as in the antecedent art.
The appellate court said, "Much had been attempted and little accomplished. Indeed it was not until about ten years later, at the time of the Paris exposition of , that the real automobile art may be said to have begun.
They simply suggested using known stationary engines, which were insofar as the testimony showed, inoperative. Selden was the first to build an engine especially adapted, by reason of power developed per unit weight, to locomotion.
But these stationary engines, at least one of them, was shown, to the court's satisfaction, to be capable of moving a vehicle over a track. Since this use pointed directly to the use on road vehicles, it did not require invention to "claim the same combination. On the other hand, the court found that to make the improvements in the Brayton engine necessary to adapt it to road locomotion involved more than mere mechanical skill, in view of the superior efficiency of the engine for the purpose.
We have nearly broken established rules by looking at the drawings by themselves to ascertain the changes made in that engine. There is little enough to be found about the improvements to it and nothing at all about the alterations of other engines. The patent does not pretend or attempt to lay down any rule for reorganizing compression engines to fit them for vehicular purposes. It does not say that other kinds of engines than the Brayton type require changes.
It does not say that the changes made in the Brayton engine could be made in other engines, or that if made they would fit them for use in motor vehicles. No one could learn from the patent whether the Otto engine could be constructed with an enclosed crank chamber or whether the substitution of the gearing ratio shown in the drawings would increase or diminish its speed.
With the patent before a person skilled in the art, experiments, certainly, and invention, not improbably, would have been necessary to determine the steps required to reorganize the Otto engine. But any contention that a motor vehicle constructed by the patentee according to the teachings of the patent operated so successfully as to demonstrate that Selden had solved a great problem and is entitled to the status of a pioneer inventor is, we think, without foundation.
In conclusion, the court found, that if the claims be narrowly construed to cover only Selden's specific contribution to the art they could be held valid. So construed they were limited to the combination of a Brayton engine with a road vehicle; and since defendants used the Otto engine, the claims were not infringed. Commenting on the decision "The Automobile" for January 12, said, "Coming at a dramatic moment, while the great automobile show conducted under the auspices of the A.
Judge Noyes wrote the opinion of the court and held that while the Selden patent covering an early type of automobile was valid it did not cover the basic features of the Ford car and others joined with the Ford company as defendants to the action" The court orders the cause sent back to the trial court to be dismissed with costs upon the complainants. The whole atmosphere seemed to take on an electric quality after the announcement and it was not until the next morning that some of the members were acquainted with the facts.
Ford declined to comment on the decision other than to state that the facts were before the public. Selden was asked for a statement for the press. He said, "I went into this enterprise hoping to make a little money out of it.
I have succeeded much better than I expected and as my patent has but a year or two to run, the decision has no severe significance.
The case will probably go to the Supreme Court. The case, however, did not go to the Supreme Court and shortly then after the A. In addition to its licensing activities, the Association carried on research and standardization work under its mechanical branch.
Approximately one year before the adverse decision the mechanical branch had been discontinued and all records, apparatus, and engineering library turned over to the Society of Automotive Engineers. The Selden case was closed, but the controversies that it aroused have endured to the present day. There have been greater inventions, more fundamental decisions, and more startling delays.
But the Selden case still holds a unique position in the annals of the patent system. Journal of the Patent Office Society: An online magazine offering a pastiche of articles on current affairs, history, technics, opinion, writing, advice, humor and trivia since May 12, Copyright c RSA, Inc. He was President of the Selden Motor Company of this city.
He was 77 years old. While George Baldwin Selden filed in the first patent for a gasoline motor- propelled vehicle, he reaped only long years of litigation, which, it was said. He obtained his patent In November, In the intervening years other gasoline-propelled cars had been built here and In Germany.
Setting up a claim to the basic patent, Selden began suit in against Ford and Winton. The lower court found in his favor, but while the Appellate Court upheld his patent, it reversed judgment on the ground that Winton and Ford were making. The litigation was renewed by the Electric Vehicle Company of New Jersey, to whom Selden sold the manufacturing rights. This was later reduced to four-fifths of 1 per cent. Ford continued the fight alone.
As other manufacturers were using the same type, the association was disbanded and the royalties ceased. After experimenting in the making of engines for light vehicles driven by steam, by ammonia gas, bisuiphite of carbon and other liquid fuels, he turned his attention to petroleum as fuel.
By he reached the conclusion that the internal combustion engine of the compression type using liquids fuel was the solution of his difficulties. Notwithstanding the gibes of others, he persevered. New York Times ; January 18, The Selden Motor Wagon. These two photos above and immediatly below appear to have been taken moments apart; note the slightly different positions of the gawkers, and the absence of the other automobile behind on the right.
The third and fourth photos which follow must also be from the same set-up. The young boy with his arms folded seems to have known where to stand for the best inclusion in those two shots. The image of Selden's Motor Wagon has been put on plates, ashtrays, pitchers, and other items.
To see some examples, click HERE. Also on that page is a reproduction of the full Selden Patent, including photos of the model which was sent to the US Patent Office. Selden is in very good company on this advertising blotter issued by Lyle's Quality Pharmacy in Kaimuki, which is a residential section of Honolulu near Diamond Head.
Selden cars had a small following and the company did well producing cars in ; 1, in ; 1, in ; 1, in ; 1, in ; in and in The last Seldens were built in Seldens came in Touring, Runabout, Roadster and Limousine models.
All cars were powered by a four-cylinder 30 to 40 horsepower engine. Following this, the company produced trucks with considerable success until , when it was sold to the Bethlehem Truck Company. The Selden Case By J. An article from Postscripts. Hope Cemetery in Rochester, N. Below Selden's name is his claim to fame: The caption of the photo above was slightly edited for clarity, but the names and date are as they were said to be with the original. The images above and below are by Nathan Lazarnick, and, like like ones near the top of this page, are also dated Despite the discrepencies in the dates, the assumption is that this long article has been carefully researched and checked, and these magazine articles attest to the correct date.
Next, another pair of shots from the same demonstration, along with comments from one of the men sitting in the vehicle which clarify the situation and show inaccuracies of the published report. A hundred years later, we are perhaps more used to the "spin" which is employed by all sides both before and after the fact. To read the judge's ruling in its entirety, plus many articles from the resulting activity during , click here.
To read about the A. Selden filed in The automobile that he disclosed had a clutch, foot-brake, muffler, front-wheel drive, and power shaft arranged to run faster than the propelling wheel. The engine was a six cylinder unit, three power cylinders and three compression, and was provided with a compressed air tank. The air was admitted to the power cylinders admixed with liquid hydrocarbon fuel, which burned according to the Brayton principle.
The following are excerpts from the specification: The difficulties heretofore encountered in the application of steam to common roads are the great weight of the boiler, engine, water, and water-tanks, the complicated apparatus necessary to adapt the machine to the roughness of the roads which it must traverse, the necessity of the attendance of a skilled engineer to prevent accidents, and the unsightly appearance of the locomotives built on this plan.
I have succeeded in overcoming these difficulties by the construction of a road-locomotive propelled by a liquid-hydrocarbon engine of the compression type, of a design which permits it to be operated in connection with the running- gear, so that the full carrying capacity of the body of the vehicle can be utilized for the transport of persons or goods, and which, by dispensing with skilled attendance and with steam-boilers, water, water-tanks, coal, and coal-bunkers, very largely reduces the weight of the machine in proportion to the power produced and enables me, while employing the most condensed type of fuel, to produce a power road-wagon which differs but little in appearance from and is not materially heavier than the carriages in common use, is capable of being managed by persons of ordi- nary skill at a minimum of trouble and expense, and which possesses sufficient power to overcome any usual inclination.
In support of this position the Court cited a number of references including both track vehicles and road vehicles as follows: Mackenzie, British patent of Savalle, French patent 77, of Kirkwood, British patent of Rosenwald, French patent , of Le Monde Illustre, June 16, The Outlook, July 6, Article by George B.
Selden son of the inventor. Columbia Motor Car Co. Duerr et al, Fed. The Romance of the Automobile, by Doolittle, The following is a resume of the prosecution: An article from Postscripts An online magazine offering a pastiche of articles on current affairs, history, technics, opinion, writing, advice, humor and trivia since May 12, Monday, September 27, [Original text only; illustrations photos and documents added for this website presentation.
Never heard of him," is the usual comment of cemetery visitors. A hundred years ago nearly everybody knew Selden's name--especially anyone about to purchase one of the new-fangled automobiles. Selden's patent on an "improved road locomotive" was tying the infant automobile industry into knots. This is the story of George Baldwin Selden: And forgotten man of the automobile.
One of 12 children, he was born in at Clarkson, 16 miles west of Rochester, in a house that still stands. His abolitionist father, Henry Rogers Selden, participated in the formation of the Republican Party in and was elected lieutenant governor of New York in According to a family account, Henry Selden turned down the chance for nomination for the vice-presidency on the Republican ticket with Abraham Lincoln in Henry Selden's most celebrated case was his defense of woman's suffrage activist Susan B.
With the passage of the 14th Amendment holding that citizenship rights cannot be abridged and the 15th Amendment guaranteeing that race was no bar to voting rights, she believed that women had the right to vote. In the national election, she and 50 women registered to vote.
Anthony and 14 other women voters were allowed to vote in the 8th Ward. Rogers posted her bail, saying that "he could not see a lady he respected put in jail. Fate sometimes plays strange tricks. Had his father accepted the vice-presidential nomination, he might have returned from the war as the son of the man who would succeed the assassinated Lincoln.
Instead, he emerged obscurely to enter Yale as a sophomore in He soon abandoned a classical course to enroll in Yale's Sheffield Scientific School, where he spent two happy years. Young George Selden was a tinkerer and had a native mechanical ability, but his father had other plans for him. His science studies were cut short abruptly in , however, when his father insisted that he return to Rochester to "read law. By , he had established his own practice.
Selden soon became fascinated with the subject of road locomotion and read everything he could find on the subject. Heavy steam-powered vehicles had proliferated in England and America a half century before but had been stifled by legislation and the swift growth of railroads. As Selden saw it, the main problem was to find a new and light engine to propel a wheeled vehicle over roads. Philadelphia and the Brayton Engine In , the nation celebrated its hundredth birthday with the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia.
Selden attended to show a machine he had invented for making barrel hoops. This gave him a chance to see and study several recently perfected engines. The exposition's 2,foot-long Machinery Hall held 13 acres of mechanical devices. Star of the show was the foot-tall double Corliss engine. This 1,horsepower monster engine operated five miles of rotating shafts that powered other machinery in the vast hall. It required only a single attendant, who sat calmly on the platform reading newspapers.
In contrast with the clumsy, clattering giant engines powered by steam and illuminating gas, the 1,pound, two-cycle Brayton engine on display, although large, offered the best possibility of powering a road vehicle. Selden began toying with engine designs. The Brayton engine contained a diaphragm through which flame entered the water-cooled cylinder, creating poor combustion. Selden's engine was identical to Brayton's except that it omitted the diaphragm. Combustion was just as poor.
In December of he brought his own engine specifications to Frank Clement's machine shop in Rochester. The design, called for three cylinders, each opposed by a compression air pump. A casting was made, but only one of the cylinders was bored out. In May of , the pound two-horsepower engine was tested, but operated feebly.
By any yardstick, Selden's contributions to engine design at this point were considerable. He had enclosed the Brayton open crankcase and made it integral with the block. This enabled him to eliminate the heavy bed plate and the cumbersome reciprocating parts and walking beam, thus reducing the size and weight of Brayton's engine. Selden knew at last that he had found an engine that could be mounted in a vehicle the size of a buggy.
The elated Rochester lawyer filed his patent application on May 8, In it, he described in general terms an "improved road engine" powered by a "liquid hydrocarbon engine type. These elements, of course were all known at the time. It was their combination that was new and therefore patentable. At the time Selden filed his patent application, the two-cycle Selden engine was thought to be the gasoline power plant of the future.
In Germany, Nikolaus Otto had used an electric spark to ignite a mixture of coal dust, gasoline and air to explode inside a cylinder and push a piston to drive a wheel. The drawing that accompanied Selden's patent application bore two signatures as witnesses. One was that of W. The other was that of George Eastman, a name that would later become known worldwide.
In , Eastman was still only an unknown clerk in an office in the same building as Selden. He had the germ of an idea for bringing photography within the reach of everyone. Upon arriving in the Patent Office in Washington, Selden's application began a long and tedious stay. It was to be the subject of amendment and correspondence for the next 16 years, five months and 28 days before issuing forth in patent form. Selden was widely criticized for taking advantage of the statutory limit that then governed the pace of patent applications.
Delaying patent applications was a common tactic--and it was entirely legal. Patent Office Backlog During the 19th century, American patent law had become a veritable jungle of abuses. The Patent Act of had set no time limit for replies by applicants to Patent Office actions. In a two-year period was fixed for completing or perfecting applications. But the two-year period was renewable indefinitely. Once Selden had submitted his patent application, he took advantage of every legal tactic to delay the issuance of a patent.
By the end of , the Patent Office found itself with the staggering total of 50, waiting applications. Of 12, pending for two years or more, five, including Selden's, had been under consideration for 15 years. The exasperated Commissioner of Patents ruled in April of that applicants must show cause why cases of long standing were not more rapidly prosecuted--or face rejection by patent examiners.
This ruling had the effect of reducing the number of outstanding cases by 6, in One of these was Selden's. Since no one else in saw an automobile industry on the horizon at that early date, if Selden foresaw the eventual growth of an automobile industry and purposely delayed the issuance of his patent until a social demand arose for the automobile, perhaps his foresight should be recognized. By the primacy of his patent application, he was the first American to conceive of the gasoline automobile.
Procrastination a Tactic Selden has been castigated by various historians of technology as "a consummate master of systematic and intentional delay" and "that prince of procrastinators. Patent Office replies to Selden took a month or less. Practically all of Selden's responses are dated a shade under the statutory limit of 24 months or days. Even such a routine detail as furnishing a new oath took Selden days. Out of fairness to the Rochester inventor, his explanation for the delays was that he was trying unsuccessfully to line up capital for the manufacture and sale of automobiles of his design.
There is evidence that he tried to do so. Nevertheless, between and , his 19 original claims were canceled and replaced by revisions that kept up with changes in technology. East Germans successfully defected by a variety of methods: When a metal beam was placed at checkpoints to prevent this kind of defection, up to four people two in the front seats and possibly two in the boot drove under the bar in a sports car that had been modified to allow the roof and windscreen to come away when it made contact with the beam.
They lay flat and kept driving forward. The East Germans then built zig-zagging roads at checkpoints. The sewer system predated the Wall, and some people escaped through the sewers,  in a number of cases with assistance from the Unternehmen Reisebüro.
If an escapee was wounded in a crossing attempt and lay on the death strip, no matter how close they were to the Western wall, Westerners could not intervene for fear of triggering engaging fire from the 'Grepos', the East Berlin border guards. The guards often let fugitives bleed to death in the middle of this ground, as in the most notorious failed attempt, that of Peter Fechter aged He was shot and bled to death, in full view of the Western media, on 17 August Fechter's death created negative publicity worldwide that led the leaders of East Berlin to place more restrictions on shooting in public places, and provide medical care for possible "would-be escapers".
The Wall gave rise to a widespread sense of desperation and oppression in East Berlin, as expressed in the private thoughts of one resident, who confided to her diary "Our lives have lost their spirit On 6 June , David Bowie , who earlier for several years lived and recorded in West Berlin, played a concert close to the Wall.
This was attended by thousands of Eastern concertgoers across the Wall,  followed by violent rioting in East Berlin. According to Tobias Ruther, these protests in East Berlin were the first in the sequence of riots that led to those of November You are now among Heroes.
Thank you for helping to bring down the wall. On 19 July , 16 months before the Wall came down, Bruce Springsteen and the E-Street Band, played Rocking the Wall, a live concert in East Berlin, which was attended by , in person and broadcast delayed on television. Springsteen spoke to the crowd in German, saying: I've come to play rock 'n' roll for you in the hope that one day all the barriers will be torn down".
They hoped that by letting Springsteen in, they could improve their sentiment among East Germans. However, this strategy of "one step backwards, two steps forwards" backfired and the concert only made East Germans hungrier for more of the freedoms that Springsteen epitomized.
Kennedy and Ronald Reagan delivered their famous speeches from the safety of West Berlin, Springsteen's speaking out against the Wall in the middle of East Berlin added to the euphoria. On 31 December , American TV actor and pop music singer David Hasselhoff was the headlining performer for the Freedom Tour Live concert, which was attended by over , people on both sides of the Wall.
The live concert footage was directed by music video director Thomas Mignone and aired on broadcast television station Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen ZDF throughout Europe. During shooting film crew personnel pulled people up from both sides to stand and celebrate on top of the wall.
Hasselhoff sang his number one hit song "Looking For Freedom" on a platform at the end of a twenty-meter steel crane that swung above and over the Wall adjacent to the Brandenburg Gate. On 26 June , 22 months after the erection of the Berlin Wall, U. Kennedy visited West Berlin. Speaking from a platform erected on the steps of Rathaus Schöneberg for an audience of , he declared in his Ich bin ein Berliner speech the support of the United States for West Germany and the people of West Berlin in particular:.
Two thousand years ago, the proudest boast was civis romanus sum ["I am a Roman citizen"]. Today, in the world of freedom, the proudest boast is "Ich bin ein Berliner! All free men, wherever they may live, are citizens of Berlin, and therefore, as a free man, I take pride in the words "Ich bin ein Berliner!
The message was aimed as much at the Soviets as it was at Berliners and was a clear statement of U. The speech is considered one of Kennedy's best, both a notable moment of the Cold War and a high point of the New Frontier. It was a great morale boost for West Berliners, who lived in an exclave deep inside East Germany and feared a possible East German occupation.
In a speech at the Brandenburg Gate commemorating the th anniversary of Berlin  on 12 June , U. We welcome change and openness; for we believe that freedom and security go together, that the advance of human liberty can only strengthen the cause of world peace.
There is one sign the Soviets can make that would be unmistakable, that would advance dramatically the cause of freedom and peace.
General Secretary Gorbachev, if you seek peace, if you seek prosperity for the Soviet Union and eastern Europe, if you seek liberalization , come here to this gate. Gorbachev, open this gate. Gorbachev, tear down this Wall!
In June the Hungarian government began dismantling the electrified fence along its border with Austria with Western TV crews present , and then, in September, more than 13, East German tourists escaped through Hungary to Austria.
The Hungarians prevented many more East Germans from crossing the border and returned them to Budapest. The East German government responded by disallowing any further travel to Hungary, but allowed those already there to return to East Germany.
This time, however, the East German authorities allowed people to leave, provided that they did so by train through East Germany. This was followed by mass demonstrations within East Germany itself.
Protest demonstrations spread throughout East Germany in September Initially, protesters were mostly people wanting to leave to the West, chanting "Wir wollen raus! Then protestors began to chant "Wir bleiben hier! This was the start of what East Germans generally call the " Peaceful Revolution " of late The movement neared its height on 4 November, when half a million people gathered to demand political change, at the Alexanderplatz demonstration , East Berlin's large public square and transportation hub.
Honecker had predicted in January of that year that the Wall would stand for 50 or more years  [ dead link ] if the conditions that had caused its construction did not change. The wave of refugees leaving East Germany for the West kept increasing. This was tolerated by the new Krenz government, because of long-standing agreements with the communist Czechoslovak government, allowing free travel across their common border.
However this movement of people grew so large it caused difficulties for both countries. To ease the difficulties, the politburo led by Krenz decided on 9 November to allow refugees to exit directly through crossing points between East Germany and West Germany, including between East and West Berlin. Later the same day, the ministerial administration modified the proposal to include private, round-trip, travel.
The new regulations were to take effect the next day. Günter Schabowski , the party boss in East Berlin and the spokesman for the SED Politburo, had the task of announcing the new regulations. However, he had not been involved in the discussions about the new regulations and had not been fully updated.
These regulations had only been completed a few hours earlier and were to take effect the following day, so as to allow time to inform the border guards. But this starting time delay was not communicated to Schabowski. At the end of the press conference, Schabowski read out loud the note he had been given. After a few seconds' hesitation, Schabowski assumed it would be the same day based on the wording of the note and replied, "As far as I know, it takes effect immediately, without delay".
Excerpts from Schabowski's press conference were the lead story on West Germany's two main news programs that night—at 7: As ARD and ZDF had broadcast to nearly all of East Germany since the late s and had become accepted by the East German authorities, the news was broadcast there as well simultaneously. The GDR has announced that, starting immediately, its borders are open to everyone. The gates in the Wall stand open wide.
After hearing the broadcast, East Germans began gathering at the Wall, at the six checkpoints between East and West Berlin, demanding that border guards immediately open the gates. At first, they were ordered to find the "more aggressive" people gathered at the gates and stamp their passports with a special stamp that barred them from returning to East Germany—in effect, revoking their citizenship.
However, this still left thousands of people demanding to be let through "as Schabowski said we can". It soon became clear that no one among the East German authorities would take personal responsibility for issuing orders to use lethal force, so the vastly outnumbered soldiers had no way to hold back the huge crowd of East German citizens.
Soon afterward, a crowd of West Berliners jumped on top of the Wall, and were soon joined by East German youngsters. Walking through Checkpoint Charlie , 10 November At the Brandenburg Gate , 10 November Another border crossing to the south may have been opened earlier. An account by Heinz Schäfer indicates that he also acted independently and ordered the opening of the gate at Waltersdorf-Rudow a couple of hours earlier.
The fall of the Berlin Wall German: Mauerfall began the evening of 9 November and continued over the following days and weeks, with people nicknamed Mauerspechte wall woodpeckers using various tools to chip off souvenirs, demolishing lengthy parts in the process, and creating several unofficial border crossings. Crowds gathered on both sides of the historic crossings waiting for hours to cheer the bulldozers that tore down portions of the Wall to reconnect the divided roads. While the Wall officially remained guarded at a decreasing intensity, new border crossings continued for some time, including the Brandenburg Gate on 22 December Initially the East German military attempted repairing damage done by the "Wall peckers"; gradually these attempts ceased, and guards became more lax, tolerating the increasing demolitions and "unauthorized" border crossing through the holes.
West Germans and West Berliners were allowed visa-free travel starting 23 December. Thus, in the weeks between 9 November and 23 December, East Germans could actually travel more freely than Westerners. According to estimates by the border troops, a total of around 1. These were equipped with trucks, 65 cranes, 55 excavators and 13 bulldozers. Virtually every road that was severed by the Berlin Wall, every road that once linked from West Berlin to East Berlin, was reconstructed and reopened by 1 August What remained were six sections that were to be preserved as a memorial.
Painted wall segments with artistically valuable motifs were put up for auction in in Berlin and Monte Carlo. On 1 July, the day East Germany adopted the West German currency, all de jure border controls ceased, although the inter-German border had become meaningless for some time before that. The fall of the Wall marked the first critical step towards German reunification , which formally concluded a mere days later on 3 October with the dissolution of East Germany and the official reunification of the German state along the democratic lines of the West German Basic Law.
An East German guard talks to a Westerner through a broken seam in the wall in late November A crane removes a section of the Wall near Brandenburg Gate on 21 December In some European capitals at the time, there was a deep anxiety over prospects for a reunified Germany.
This would lead to a change to postwar borders and we cannot allow that because such a development would undermine the stability of the whole international situation and could endanger our security," Thatcher told Gorbachev. On 25 December , Leonard Bernstein gave a concert in Berlin celebrating the end of the Wall, including Beethoven's 9th symphony Ode to Joy with the word "Joy" Freude changed to "Freedom" Freiheit in the lyrics sung.
The poet Schiller may have originally written "Freedom" and changed it to "Joy" out of fear. Over the years, there has been a repeated controversial debate  as to whether 9 November would make a suitable German national holiday, often initiated by former members of political opposition in East Germany, such as Werner Schulz.
However, 9 November is also the anniversary of the execution of Robert Blum in following the Vienna revolts , the Beer Hall Putsch and the infamous Kristallnacht pogroms of the Nazis in Nobel Laureate Elie Wiesel criticized the first euphoria, noting that "they forgot that 9 November has already entered into history—51 years earlier it marked the Kristallnacht. On 9 November , Berlin celebrated the 20th Anniversary of the Fall of the Berlin Wall with a "Festival of Freedom" with dignitaries from around the world in attendance for an evening celebration around the Brandenburg Gate.
A high point was when over 1, colourfully designed foam domino tiles, each over 8 feet 2. A Berlin Twitter Wall was set up to allow Twitter users to post messages commemorating the 20th anniversary. The Chinese government quickly shut down access to the Twitter Wall after masses of Chinese users began using it to protest the Great Firewall of China.
In the United States, the German Embassy coordinated a public diplomacy campaign with the motto "Freedom Without Walls", to commemorate the 20th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall. The campaign was focused on promoting awareness of the fall of the Berlin Wall among current college students.
Students at over 30 universities participated in "Freedom Without Walls" events in late An international project called Mauerreise Journey of the Wall took place in various countries. Twenty symbolic Wall bricks were sent from Berlin starting in May , with the destinations being Korea, Cyprus, Yemen, and other places where everyday life is characterised by division and border experience.
In these places, the bricks will become a blank canvas for artists, intellectuals and young people to tackle the "wall" phenomenon.
To commemorate the 20th Anniversary of the Fall of the Berlin Wall, Twinity reconstructed a true-to-scale section of the Wall in virtual Berlin. Rides were raffled every half-hour and a Trabant crashed through a Berlin Wall mock up.
The stamps splendidly illustrate that even twenty years on, veterans of service in Berlin still regard their service there as one of the high points of their lives. Remains of the Wall adjacent to the Topography of Terror , August A memorial of over a thousand crosses and a segment of the Wall for those who died trying to cross. The memorial stood for ten months in and before it was removed. Czech hedgehog antitank obstacles and the Wall.
An exhibition dedicated to the 25th anniversary to the Berlin Wall destruction was located at Potsdamer Platz Arkaden. Line indicating where the Wall once stood, just off Potsdamer Platz , in Little is left of the Wall at its original site, which was destroyed almost in its entirety.
Three long sections are still standing: Other isolated fragments, lampposts, other elements, and a few watchtowers also remain in various parts of the city. Fragments of the Wall were taken and some were sold around the world. Appearing both with and without certificates of authenticity , these fragments are now a staple on the online auction service eBay as well as German souvenir shops. Today, the eastern side is covered in graffiti that did not exist while the Wall was guarded by the armed soldiers of East Germany.
Previously, graffiti appeared only on the western side. Along some tourist areas of the city centre, the city government has marked the location of the former Wall by a row of cobblestones in the street. In most places only the "first" wall is marked, except near Potsdamer Platz where the stretch of both walls is marked, giving visitors an impression of the dimension of the barrier system.
After the fall of Berlin Wall, there were initiatives that they want to preserve the death strip walkways and redevelop it into a hiking and cycling area, known as Berliner Mauerweg.
It is part of the initiative by Berlin Senate since For many years after reunification, people in Germany talked about cultural differences between East and West Germans colloquially Ossis and Wessis , sometimes described as Mauer im Kopf The wall in the head.
A September poll found that 25 percent of West Germans and 12 percent of East Germans wished that East and West should be separated again by a "Wall". Although differences are still perceived between East and West, Germans make similar distinctions between North and South. Ten percent of people surveyed thought Berlin residents built it themselves.
Six percent said Western powers built it and four percent thought it was a "bilateral initiative" of the Soviet Union and the West. Fifty-eight percent said they did not know who built it, with just 24 percent correctly naming the Soviet Union and its then-communist ally East Germany.
Not all segments of the Wall were ground up as the Wall was being torn down. Many segments have been given to various institutions in the world. They can be found, for instance, in presidential and historical museums, lobbies of hotels and corporations, at universities and government buildings, and in public spaces in different countries of the world. Speeches extolled freedom and a minute of silence at noon honored those who died trying to flee to the West.
Freedom is invincible at the end. No wall can permanently withstand the desire for freedom", proclaimed President Wulff. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the video game, see The Berlin Wall video game. This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding or removing subheadings.
View from the West Berlin side of graffiti art on the Wall in The Wall's "death strip", on the east side of the Wall, here follows the curve of the Luisenstadt Canal filled in Map of the location of the Berlin Wall, showing checkpoints. Border length around West Berlin: Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to People's Socialist Republic of Albania to Somali Democratic Republic to People's Republic of China to Forest Brothers in Lithuania in Latvia in Estonia.
It is meant to function as an induction or education of the reader to the standpoint of purely conceptual thought from which philosophy can be done. As such, its structure has been compared to that of a Bildungsroman educational novel , having an abstractly conceived protagonist—the bearer of an evolving series of so-called shapes of consciousness or the inhabitant of a series of successive phenomenal worlds—whose progress and set-backs the reader follows and learns from.
Or at least this is how the work sets out: Hegel constructs a series of such shapes that maps onto the history of western European civilization from the Greeks to his own time. When Kant had broached the idea of a phenomenological propaedeutic to Lambert, he himself had still believed in the project of a purely conceptual metaphysics achievable by the use of the regressive or analytic method, but this project conceived as an exercise in theoretical reason was just what Kant in his later critical philosophy had come to disavow.
Supporters of the post-Kantian interpretation of Hegel obviously interpret this work and its telos differently. For example, it has been argued e. As Pinkard had pointed out in that work, this was a conception of the normatively structured practices of human reason found in the American pragmatist Wilfrid Sellars, the inspiration behind the Hegelian dimensions of analytic philosophers such as Willem deVries , Robert Brandom and John McDowell.
Chapters 1 to 3 effectively follow a developmental series of distinct shapes of consciousness—jointly epistemological and ontological attitudes articulated by criteria which are, regarded from one direction, criteria for certain knowledge , and from the other, criteria for the nature of the objects of such knowledge.
In chapter 1, the attitude of Sense-certainty takes immediately given perceptual simples—the sort of role played by the so-called sense-data of early twentieth-century analytic epistemology, for example, with which a subject is purportedly acquainted as bare thises —as the fundamental objects known.
Hegel is clear that these contents are not merely qualitative simples that are immediately apprehended , but comprehended instances of the conceptual determination of singularity [ Einzelheit ] Phen: The idea seems to be that for Hegel, the same content can play the roles played by both concepts and intuitions in Kant. By the end of this chapter our protagonist consciousness and by implication, we the audience to this drama has learnt that the nature of consciousness cannot be as originally thought: The general truth that was learned about the apparent qualitative simples in Sense-certainty that they were instances of generals is now explicitly taken as the truth of the object of Perception Wahrnehmung —in German this term having the connotations of taking nehmen to be true wahr.
In contrast to the purported single object of Sense-certainty the object of Perception is taken as instantiating general properties: But this can be conceived in a variety of ways: Predictably, problems will be revealed in these various different ways of thinking of the nature of those everyday objects of our experience.
In fact, such collapse into a type of self-generated skepticism is typical of all the shapes we follow in the work, and there seems something inherently skeptical about such reflexive cognitive processes. But this is not the type of skepticism that is typical of early modern philosophy, such as that used by Descartes in his attempt to find some foundation of indubitability on which genuine knowledge can be built Forster As is clear from his treatment of ancient philosophy in the Lectures on the History of Philosophy , Hegel was attracted to the type of dialectic employed by Socrates in his efforts to get his interlocutors thinking about something beyond that given immediately in sensation LHP II: For Hegel, the ancient skeptics captured the skeptical moment of thought that is the means by which thought progresses beyond the particular categories that have given rise to contradictions.
Just as in the way a new shape of thought, Perception, had been generated from the internal contradictions that emerged within Sense-certainty, the collapse of any given attitude will be accompanied by the emergence of some new implicit criterion that will be the basis of a new emergent attitude. In the case of Perception, the emergent new shape of consciousness, the Understanding, explored in Chapter 3, is a shape identified with the type of scientific cognition that, rather than remaining on the level of the perceived object, posits underlying forces involved in the production of the perceptual episode.
The transition from Chapter 3 to Chapter 4, The Truth of Self-Certainty, also marks a more general transition from Consciousness to Self -consciousness. It is in the course of Chapter 4 that we find what is perhaps the most well-known part of the Phenomenology , the account of the struggle of recognition in which Hegel examines the inter-subjective conditions which he sees as necessary for any form of consciousness. Such complex patterns of mutual recognition constituting objective spirit thereby provide the social matrix within which individual self-consciousnesses can exist as such.
But this is only worked out in the text gradually. So we have to see how the protagonist self-consciousness could achieve this insight. It is to this end that we further trace the learning path of self-consciousness through the processes of reason in Chapter 5 before objective spirit can become the explicit subject matter of Chapter 6 Spirit. Thus Hegel might be seen as adopting the viewpoint that since social life is ordered by customs we can approach the lives of those living in it in terms of the patterns of those customs or conventions themselves—the conventional practices, as it were, constituting specific, shareable forms of life made actual in the lives of particular individuals who had in turn internalized such general patterns in the process of acculturation.
It is not surprising then that his account of spirit here starts with a discussion of religious and civic law. But for non-traditionalists it is not obvious that Hegel, in employing such phrases, is in any way committed to any metaphysical supra-individual conscious being or beings.
The idea seems to be that humans in society not only interact, but that they collectively create relatively enduring cultural products repeatable stories, stageable dramas, and so forth within which members of that society can recognise patterns of their own communal life as so reflected. Furthermore, such cultural products themselves provide conditions allowing individuals to adopt particular cognitive attitudes by appropriating their resources.
For Kant, the practical knowledge of morality, orienting one within the noumenal world, exceeds the scope of theoretical knowledge, which had been limited to phenomena. Hegel, however, thought that philosophy had to unify theoretical and practical knowledge, and so the Phenomenology has further to go. Again, this is seen differently by traditionalists and revisionists. Revisionists, on the other hand, tend to see Hegel as furthering the Kantian critique into the very coherence of a conception of an in-itself reality that is beyond the limits of our theoretical but not practical cognition.
However we understand this, absolute knowing is the standpoint to which Hegel has hoped to bring the reader in this complex work. For most of the 20 th century it was not received with the enthusiasm that often marked the reception of Phenomenology of Spirit. First, as a work of logic most have regarded it as radically outdated and relying on an Aristotelian approach that was definitively surpassed in the later nineteenth century—a view promoted especially by Bertrand Russell in the early years of the twentieth.
Recently, this skepticism has started to change. Some advocate that the Science of Logic be read as a first-order ontological doctrine Doz or as a category theory that simultaneously represents structures of being and thought Houlgate b , and so as having very little to do with what has traditionally been known as logic.
In short, taking the logic as a category theory opens up two general lines of interpretation: Those, such as the advocates of the revised metaphysical interpretation, interpreting Hegel as basically a metaphysician, typically stress the former, while post-Kantian interpreters typically stress the latter.
A glance at the table of contents of Science of Logic reveals the same triadic structuring among the categories or thought determinations discussed that has been noted among the shapes of consciousness in the Phenomenology. At the highest level of its branching structure there are the three books devoted to the doctrines of being, essence, and concept, while in turn, each book has three sections, each section containing three chapters, and so on.
In general, each of these individual nodes deals with some particular category. Reading into the first chapter of Book 1, Being, it is quickly seen that the transitions of the Logic broadly repeat those of the first chapters of the Phenomenology , now, however, as between the categories themselves rather than between conceptions of the respective objects of conscious experience.
Thus, being is the thought determination with which the work commences because it at first seems to be the most immediate, fundamental determination that characterises any possible thought content at all. Whatever thought is about, that topic must in some sense exist. Like those purported simple sensory givens with which the Phenomenology starts, the category being looks to have no internal structure or constituents, but again in a parallel to the Phenomenology , it is the effort of thought to make this category explicit that both undermines it and brings about new ones.
Being seems to be both immediate and simple, but it will show itself to be, in fact, only something in opposition to something else, nothing. The only way out of this paradox is to posit a third category within which they can coexist as negated Aufgehoben moments. This category is becoming , which saves thinking from paralysis because it accommodates both concepts.
Becoming contains being and nothing in the sense that when something becomes it passes, as it were, from nothingness to being. But these contents cannot be understood apart from their contributions to the overarching category: In general this is how the Logic proceeds: However, in turn the new category will generate some further contradictory negation and again the demand will arise for a further concept that can reconcile these opposed concepts by incorporating them as moments. It is in terms of this category that we can think, along with Aristotle, of a thing having an underlying substrate within which properties inhere and which, unlike the properties themselves, cannot be thought in general terms, but only in terms of the category of singularity.
And yet this will encounter a problem for the determinacy of this underlying substrate— it will have to find determining contrasts that allow it to be determinately conceived. In Book 2 of the Logic we will learn that the category of singularity will rely on particularity just as particularity has been shown to rely on singularlity. Attempting to unravel the intricacies of the patterns of dependence between such categories will be task of this mammoth work, but here a general point might be made.
Hegel only explicitly explores the details of the interactions of these determinations of conceptuality in his discussion of judgments and syllogisms in Book 3, The Doctrine of Concept, suggesting that concerns of logic as traditionally conceived are not as irrelevant to the Science of Logic as often thought. However, the general point separating his approach from that of Spinoza clearly emerges earlier on.
The other basic methodological principle of the Logic will be that this categorical infrastructure of thought is able to be unpacked using only the resources available to thought itself: For Kant, transcendental logic was the logic governing the thought of finite thinkers like ourselves, whose cognition was constrained by the necessity of applying general discursive concepts to the singular contents given in sensory intuitions, and he contrasted this with the thought of a type of thinker not so constrained—God—a thinker whose thought could directly grasp the world in a type of intellectual intuition.
It is also a science of actual content as well, and as such has an ontological dimension. Naturally the logical structures and processes implicit in essence-thinking are more developed than those of being-thinking. In contrast, the categories of Being-logic seem to govern thought processes that are restricted to qualitative phenomena and their co-ordinations. But distinction between essence and appearance must itself instantiate the relation of determinate negation, and the metaphysical tendency to think of reality as made up of some underlying substrates in contrast to the superficial appearances will itself come to grief with the discovery that the notion of an essence is only meaningful in virtue of the appearance that it is meant to explain away.
In terms of the ultimate conceptual categories of singularity, particularity and universality, this discovery would be equivalent to grasping the idea that the singularity of the underlying, non-perceivable substrate or substantial form is meaningful only in relation to something that can bear the particular qualities that constitutes its worldly appearance. For Hegel it is the complex modern, but pre-Kantian, versions of substance metaphysics, like those of Spinoza and Leibniz, that bring out in the most developed way the inherently contradictory nature of this form of thought.
Book 3, The Doctrine of Concept, effects a shift from the Objective Logic of Books 1 and 2, to Subjective Logic, and metaphysically coincides with a shift to the modern subject-based category theory of Kant. Just as Kantian philosophy is founded on a conception of objectivity secured by conceptual coherence, Concept-logic commences with the concept of concept itself, with its moments of singularity, particularity and universality.
While in the two books of objective logic, the movement had been between particular concepts, being, nothing, becoming etc. Reprising an etymological point made by Hölderlin, Hegel notes that a judgment Urteil involves a separation Teilung of parts: S and P are thus meant 1 to be diverse, but 2 to form a unity—a situation we are now familiar with in terms of the Aufhebung of parts in a whole.
Hegel takes this as signaling two ways of thinking of the relation of subject and predicate in the judgment. One can take subject and predicate terms as self-subsistent entities that are joined in the judgment, or one can take the judgment itself as the primary unit that splits into subject and predicate terms. This in fact coincides with the two different ways in which logical relations have been conceived in the history of philosophy: From the former point of view one thinks of the subject term as designating a substance, typically grasped as an instance of a kind, in which properties, designated by predicate terms, inhere.
From the latter point of view, one thinks of predicate terms as abstract universals that subsume or are satisfied by entities to which the subject terms refer, an approach which conceives of the propositional content, in Stoic terminology—the lecton , the what-is-said —as having a primacy over the parts.
Using a distinction from the Medievals, we can describe the first type of judgments as de re about things and the second as de dicto about sayings. These alternative joining and splitting approaches can in turn be applied to the relationship of judgments within inferences or syllogisms. In contrast with Kant, Hegel seems to go beyond a transcendental deduction of the formal conditions of experience and thought and to a deduction of their material conditions. Such a psychologistic attitude was opposed by Hegel just as it was opposed by a figure as central to modern logic as Gottlob Frege.
For Frege, thoughts are not mental, rather they are abstract entities like numbers, so the problem facing us is not how to go from mental contents to the concrete world, it is how to go from abstract to concrete ones. In fact Bertrand Russell had, at points in his career, entertained such an idea of propositional content itself.
Thus when Hegel characterizes some judgment structures typically perception based judgments as judgments of existence one might take the perceived thing itself as straightforwardly part of the content of the judgment.
It is a concrete object, but not grasped as a concrete simple , but grasped in relation to what is judged of it in the predicate. And to the extent that judgments can be considered components of syllogisms, we might appreciate how syllogisms might have become contentful in a process that has culminated in the concrete syllogism of necessity. In the Phenomenology it turned out that the capacity for a subject to entertain objects of consciousness such as perceptual ones was that such a subject was capable of self-consciousness.
It then turned out that to be capable of self-consciousness the subject had to exist in a world with other embodied subjects whose intentions it could recognize. Formally considered we might think of this syllogism as the logical schematization of the most developed form of recognition in which thinkers acknowledge others as free thinkers. What we see here is a reprise of the conception of logos as an objective process running through the world as had been conceived by the ancient Stoics and neo-Platonists.
But it is now embedded not simply in the world as such—in nature —but in objectivized spirit , in human communities of thinkers. We are now returned to the domain of objectivity that had characterized Books 1 and 2 of the Science of Logic , but we might expect such a return from subjectivity to have effected a change in objectivity as earlier understood.
To cross straight into a consideration of the objectivity of the human world of action and thought—spirit—would be to break the developmental pattern of the logic because thought about such a complex form of objective existence will presuppose thought about simpler forms.
And so the starting point for the consideration of objectivity will again be that of the simple object as something immediately grasped by thought. But this object can now be developed with that elaborate conceptual apparatus that has emerged in the preceding section. This adequate concept is the Idea , which, after tracking through considerations of the living individual and theoretical and practical cognition, emerges as the Absolute Idea.
The first part of the Encyclopaedia is essentially a condensed version of his earlier Science of Logic , considered above. Was not Hegel simply trying to pre-empt the work of empirical scientists by somehow attempting to anticipate the very contents of their discoveries from logical considerations alone? Krug is mentioned explicitly in a footnote at this point. In these sciences the empirical element is the sole confirmation of the hypothesis, so that everything has to be explained.
In keeping with the more general idea that that philosophy attempts to discern or recognize concepts in representations Vorstellungen or empirical appearances, philosophy of nature investigates the conceptual structures that are manifest in the products of the scientific work that is done on the basis of those appearances. Traces of conceptual determination will certainly survive in the most particularized product, although they will not exhaust its nature. Clearly, philosophy of nature is not in competition with the empirical natural sciences; it takes as its subject matter the results of those sciences in order to discover within them the particular ways in which the necessary categorial structures deduced in the logic are expressed.
In terms of topics treated, the Philosophy of Nature largely coincides with those treated in the third book of the Science of Logic when the logical processes and relations in question have returned to objectivity after the excursion into the subjectivity of formal logic at the outset of Book 3. In Mechanism Hegel had reconstructed a movement in thought from a primitive cosmology in which all objects are conceived in relation to a central object the sun that exemplifies objecthood per se , to a system of objects within which any such self-sufficient center has been eliminated.
In this Newtonian world, that which gives order to the whole now has the ideality of law, but this is itself thought of as external to the system of objects. After an Introduction, Section One of the Philosophy of Nature , Mechanics, expands on this progression through considerations of space and time, matter considered as the diversity of individual bodies distributed in space and time, and finally the idea of universal gravitation as the determinate concept of such corporeal matter realized as idea PN: In the Newtonian laws of mechanics, however, the unity of matter is still only formal , and in Section Two, Physics, the determinateness of form is now considered as immanent within such corporeal matter.
Matter has individuality to the extent that it is determined within itself by having being-for-self developed within it. It is through this determination that matter breaks away from gravity and manifests itself as implicitly self-determining. While Mechanics clearly reflects the more space-filling conception of matter dominant in British thought, Physics is consistent with the more dynamic continental European conception of matter originating in Leibniz with his idea of living forces.
Within this framework, Hegel attempts to organize a vast array of areas of contemporary physical investigation including meteorology, theories of sound and heat, light and electricity up to and including chemical processes which stand on the threshold of Organic Physics, dealt with in Section Three. From such a conception, the first body to be considered is that of the earth itself , along with its history. Chapter Two moves to a consideration of the plant and Chapter Three, the animal organism.
From the point of view of the actual content of scientific theories and approaches that Hegel summarizes and locates within his system, his Philosophy of Nature is clearly a product of his time.
Nevertheless, many of the underlying philosophical issues dealt with are still now far from settled. Within subjective spirit, we may anticipate that the first division, Anthropology, will follow on from topics with which Philosophy of Nature ends—the animal organism—and so it does.
If soul and body are absolutely opposed to one another as is maintained by the abstractive intellectual consciousness,. The community was, however, recognized by ancient metaphysics as an undeniable fact. The Seele of Anthropology should therefore not be confused with the modern subjective conception of mind, as exemplified by Descartes and other early modern philosophers. Aristotle had conceived of the soul as the form of the body, not as a substance separate from that of the body, and had attributed lesser souls to animals and even plants.
Concomitantly, in this section Hegel describes spirit as sunk in nature, and treats consciousness as largely limited to what now might be described as sentient or phenomenal consciousness alone—the feeling soul. Consciousness in the sense of the modern subject—object opposition only makes its appearance in the following second section, Phenomenology of Spirit, which, reprising key moments from the earlier book of that name, raises a problem for how we are to understand the relation of phenomenology and systematic philosophy: Given that the recognitive approach to self-consciousness presupposes that potential self-consciousnesses are in fact embodied and located in the world, we would expect the mind as treated in Psychology to be no less embodied as the way in which it is conceived in Anthropology.
What in fact distinguishes the mind of Psychology from that of Anthropology is its rational capacities, considered in terms that would now be described as normative rather than simply naturalistic, and this for Hegel clearly signals a difference in the way in which an actual psychological subject relates to his or her own body.
The type of abstractive thinking found in Psychology does not, of course, as in mythical images of metempsychosis—a favorite trope of Platonists—involve the mind leaving the body.
This would count for Hegel as a piece of mythical picture thinking—a Vorstellung. Rather, it involves a certain capacity of the psychological subject to suspend unreflected-upon endorsement of the claims made on behalf of his or her body, for example, to subject the evidence given by the senses to rational scrutiny. In this sense, we are witnessing within another mode, the type of progression seen in the movement in Phenomenology from shapes of consciousness to shapes of spirit.
The internal Phenomenology of Spirit seems to play an important role in setting up this transition from Psychology to Objective Spirit Williams , but it might also be seen as crucial in relating the more cognitive dimensions of Psychology back to the theme of embodiment prominent in Anthropology Nuzzo a.
Thus any naturalistic analysis is ultimately surpassed by a social and historical one, which itself cannot be understood as anti -naturalistic. The philosophy of subjective spirit passes over into that of objective spirit, which concerns the objective patterns of social interaction and the cultural institutions within which spirit is objectified.