{{{content_body}}}

 

Lagers, from the German word “lagern” meaning to store, are made with a bottom or cold-fermenting yeast (Saccharomyces Uvarum – see sidebar) that sinks to the bottom of the brew during the fermentation process.

Alcohol in Popular Culture: Also visit our Calgary brewery blog to keep up to date with the latest Calgary beer info!

Welcome to Samuel Adams

Make sure this fits by entering your model number. Kit comes complete with everything you need to brew 5 gallons of tasty American Lager. American Lager is .

These are links to pages that will eventually show all of the Scottish beer cans that are in my own collection and others that I know about.

This will take a while to complete as there are can variations that I have come across - keep checking back to see how I am getting on. Any comments or help with pictures of cans that that I have not shown will be much appreciated. All the way to "Violet" who appeared in the last set of girls in A wide spectrum indeed, over nearly 30 years. From the red of the original cans to Violet at the end of the line.

This site sets out to give a full pictorial record of all the girls that have appeared on the Tennent's cans over the years. There are many books that show the cans, but none of them give the full picture.

I have tried to give as much detailed information regarding the cans and their variations as possible. I have endeavoured to produce a complete catalogue of all of the girls that have been pictured on Tennent's cans over the years.

That took the history of all Tennent's cans up to As we know the girls appeared up until their demise in New can from Tennent's New can launched this month fro Tennent's - it a minimal design can for the new Original Export Lager.

Let me know what you think about the sets as I am always open to suggestions, if I have missed any out that should be shown here drop me a note. Click Here to follow us on Facebook Remember to click the like button. From the very first girl "Ann" who appeared on a set of 20 cans showing pictures of English Scenes in New can from Tennent's.

New can launched this month fro Tennent's - it a minimal design can for the new Original Export Lager. Brewdog here in cans. Hugh Tennent and his Monkey's Following on from the Tennent's new advertising campaign - which features some very funny adverts featuring the slightly mad Hugh Tennent - here we have an example of what one of his famous cans might have looked like with his favourite monkey. Click HERE to see more.

In modern breweries this is achieved through a plate heat exchanger. A plate heat exchanger has many ridged plates, which form two separate paths. The wort is pumped into the heat exchanger, and goes through every other gap between the plates.

The cooling medium, usually water, goes through the other gaps. The ridges in the plates ensure turbulent flow.

After cooling, oxygen is often dissolved into the wort to revitalize the yeast and aid its reproduction. While boiling, it is useful to recover some of the energy used to boil the wort. On its way out of the brewery, the steam created during the boil is passed over a coil through which unheated water flows.

By adjusting the rate of flow, the output temperature of the water can be controlled. This is also often done using a plate heat exchanger. The water is then stored for later use in the next mash, in equipment cleaning, or wherever necessary. When cold water is used to cool the wort in a heat exchanger, the water is significantly warmed.

In an efficient brewery, cold water is passed through the heat exchanger at a rate set to maximize the water's temperature upon exiting. This now-hot water is then stored in a hot water tank. Fermentation takes place in fermentation vessels which come in various forms, from enormous cylindroconical vessels, through open stone vessels, to wooden vats.

It is during this stage that sugars won from the malt are converted into alcohol and carbon dioxide , and the product can be called beer for the first time. Most breweries today use cylindroconical vessels, or CCVs, which have a conical bottom and a cylindrical top.

CCVs can handle both fermenting and conditioning in the same tank. At the end of fermentation, the yeast and other solids which have fallen to the cone's apex can be simply flushed out of a port at the apex.

Open fermentation vessels are also used, often for show in brewpubs, and in Europe in wheat beer fermentation. These vessels have no tops, which makes harvesting top-fermenting yeasts very easy. The open tops of the vessels make the risk of infection greater, but with proper cleaning procedures and careful protocol about who enters fermentation chambers, the risk can be well controlled.

Fermentation tanks are typically made of stainless steel. If they are simple cylindrical tanks with beveled ends, they are arranged vertically, as opposed to conditioning tanks which are usually laid out horizontally. Only a very few breweries still use wooden vats for fermentation as wood is difficult to keep clean and infection-free and must be repitched more or less yearly.

There are three main fermentation methods, warm , cool and wild or spontaneous. Fermentation may take place in open or closed vessels. There may be a secondary fermentation which can take place in the brewery, in the cask or in the bottle. Brewing yeasts are traditionally classed as "top-cropping" or "top-fermenting" and "bottom-cropping" or "bottom-fermenting". Thus the method of collection no longer implies a species association.

There are a few remaining breweries who collect yeast in the top-cropping method, such as Samuel Smiths brewery in Yorkshire, Marstons in Staffordshire and several German hefeweizen producers.

For both types, yeast is fully distributed through the beer while it is fermenting, and both equally flocculate clump together and precipitate to the bottom of the vessel when fermentation is finished. By no means do all top-cropping yeasts demonstrate this behaviour, but it features strongly in many English yeasts that may also exhibit chain forming the failure of budded cells to break from the mother cell , which is in the technical sense different from true flocculation.

The most common top-cropping brewer's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae , is the same species as the common baking yeast. However, baking and brewing yeasts typically belong to different strains, cultivated to favour different characteristics: As such, the yeasts involved in what has been typically called top-cropping or top-fermenting ale may be both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and complex hybrids of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces kudriavzevii.

Three notable ales, Chimay , Orval and Westmalle , are fermented with these hybrid strains, which are identical to wine yeasts from Switzerland. Brewers in Bavaria had for centuries been selecting cold-fermenting yeasts by storing "lagern" their beers in cold alpine caves.

The process of natural selection meant that the wild yeasts that were most cold tolerant would be the ones that would remain actively fermenting in the beer that was stored in the caves.

A sample of these Bavarian yeasts was sent from the Spaten brewery in Munich to the Carlsberg brewery in Copenhagen in who began brewing with it.

In Emile Hansen completed a study on pure yeast culture isolation and the pure strain obtained from Spaten went into industrial production in as Carlsberg yeast No 1. Another specialized pure yeast production plant was installed at the Heineken Brewery in Rotterdam the following year and together they began the supply of pure cultured yeast to brewers across Europe.

Lambic beers are historically brewed in Brussels and the nearby Pajottenland region of Belgium without any yeast inoculation. Specific bacteria cultures are also available to reproduce certain styles. After an initial or primary fermentation, beer is conditioned , matured or aged, [] in one of several ways, [] which can take from 2 to 4 weeks, several months, or several years, depending on the brewer's intention for the beer.

The beer is usually transferred into a second container, so that it is no longer exposed to the dead yeast and other debris also known as "trub" that have settled to the bottom of the primary fermenter. This prevents the formation of unwanted flavours and harmful compounds such as acetylaldehyde. Kräusening is a conditioning method in which fermenting wort is added to the finished beer. Lagers are stored at cellar temperature or below for 1—6 months while still on the yeast. During secondary fermentation, most of the remaining yeast will settle to the bottom of the second fermenter, yielding a less hazy product.

Some beers undergo an additional fermentation in the bottle giving natural carbonation. They are bottled with a viable yeast population in suspension. If there is no residual fermentable sugar left, sugar or wort or both may be added in a process known as priming. The resulting fermentation generates CO 2 that is trapped in the bottle, remaining in solution and providing natural carbonation.

Bottle-conditioned beers may be either filled unfiltered direct from the fermentation or conditioning tank, or filtered and then reseeded with yeast. Cask ale or cask-conditioned beer is unfiltered and unpasteurised beer that is conditioned including secondary fermentation and served from a cask, either pumped up from a cellar via a beer engine hand pump , or from a tap by gravity.

Filtering the beer stabilizes the flavour, and gives beer its polished shine and brilliance. Not all beer is filtered. When tax determination is required by local laws, it is typically done at this stage in a calibrated tank. There are several forms of filters, they may be in the form of sheets or "candles", or they may be a fine powder such as diatomaceous earth , also called kieselguhr. The powder is added to the beer and recirculated past screens to form a filtration bed. Filters range from rough filters that remove much of the yeast and any solids e.

Filtration ratings are divided into rough, fine, and sterile. Rough filtration leaves some cloudiness in the beer, but it is noticeably clearer than unfiltered beer. Fine filtration removes almost all cloudiness. Sterile filtration removes almost all microorganisms. These filters use sheets that allow only particles smaller than a given size to pass through.

The sheets are placed into a filtering frame, sanitized with boiling water, for example and then used to filter the beer. The sheets can be flushed if the filter becomes blocked. The sheets are usually disposable and are replaced between filtration sessions. Often the sheets contain powdered filtration media to aid in filtration.

Pre-made filters have two sides. One with loose holes, and the other with tight holes. Flow goes from the side with loose holes to the side with the tight holes, with the intent that large particles get stuck in the large holes while leaving enough room around the particles and filter medium for smaller particles to go through and get stuck in tighter holes.

Filters that use a powder medium are considerably more complicated to operate, but can filter much more beer before regeneration. Common media include diatomaceous earth and perlite. Packaging is putting the beer into the containers in which it will leave the brewery.

Typically, this means putting the beer into bottles, aluminium cans, kegs , or casks, but it may include putting the beer into bulk tanks for high-volume customers.

Brewing by-products are "spent grain" and the sediment or " dregs " from the filtration process which may be dried and resold as "brewers dried yeast" for poultry feed, [] or made into yeast extract which is used in brands such as Vegemite and Marmite. Brewer's spent grain also called spent grain, brewer's grain or draff is the main by-product of the brewing process; [] it consists of the residue of malt and grain which remains in the mash-kettle after the mashing and lautering process.

The brewing industry is a global business, consisting of several dominant multinational companies and many thousands of smaller producers known as microbreweries or regional breweries depending on size and region. Brewing at home is subject to regulation and prohibition in many countries. Restrictions on homebrewing were lifted in the UK in , [] Australia followed suit in , [] and the USA in , though individual states were allowed to pass their own laws limiting production. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see Brewer disambiguation. This article is about the brewing of beer. For homebrewing, see Homebrewing. For other uses, see Brewing disambiguation. History of beer and Women in brewing. Malt and Mash ingredients. Brewer's yeast , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , and Saccharomyces pastorianus. The process of brewing beer. Add yeast to fermenter. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. April Learn how and when to remove this template message. Beer bottle , Beverage can , Widget beer , Draught beer , and Cask ale. The Oxford Companion to Beer. Origin and History of Beer and Brewing: Supplement to the Journal of the American Oriental Society. The Ingredients of Beer. Women and Alcohol in a Highland Maya Town: Water of Hope, Water of Sorrow revised ed.

University of Texas Press. Retrieved 16 November Retrieved 4 November The Midwife of Civilization". Assyrian International News Agency. When people of the ancient world realised they could make bread and beer from grain, they stopped roaming and settled down to cultivate cereals in recognisable communities.

University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. Retrieved 21 June The Story of the Pint. Archived from the original on 2 October Retrieved 5 November Retrieved 18 April Retrieved 18 June Carolyn Smagalski, Bella Online.

The Transfer of Knowledge. Retrieved 20 May Encyclopedia of Jewish Food. Retrieved 31 July Beer in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. University of Pennsylvania Press. Retrieved 1 August A History of Beer and Brewing. Royal Society of Chemistry. The Art of Fermentation. Archived from the original on 29 June Retrieved 28 September Archived from the original on 19 August Mukerji 1 March Laboratory Manual of Food Microbiology.

The Dictionary of Beer and Brewing. Chaston Chapman 22 Mar Botany, Cultivation and Utilization. Young 31 October Consultation Responses pp71, 5 October Retrieved 19 June The Science of Drinking: Archived from the original on 3 November Retrieved 12 November Archived from the original on 16 February A History of Beer and Brewing 1st ed. Bamforth; Robert Edwin Ward The Oxford Handbook of Food Fermentations.

Retrieved 30 July The Illustrated Guide to Brewing Beer. Retrieved 13 November Alcohol in Popular Culture: Foods and Nutrition Encyclopedia.

Archived from the original on 19 April Retrieved 15 December Archived from the original on 11 April