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It is impossible to describe in detail the vast development of processions during the Middle Ages.

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Every day I am indebted to God. If you look around the world — even if you look south — then you will appreciate what is good in Canada. Please stop labelling perpetuators of crime with their faith. They may be mentally ill … no religion teaches violence.

When they engage in violence they have left their religion behind. He said he fell in love with Canada the first time he visited the country. Asked what he loves most, he said: Most of the people in Canada are peaceful. Unfortunately, this is not happening around the world. Malik, who had worked in telecommunications in Pakistan and now fills his time as a full-time community volunteer, said the nine principles of peace are an attempt to appeal to the hearts of people, regardless of where they live or what their faith may be.

We want to approach the hearts of people. Copyright owned or licensed by Toronto Star Newspapers Limited. It is to such a procession that reference appears to be made in a letter of St Basil , [8] which would thus be the first recorded mention of a public Christian procession.

The first mention for the Western Church occurs in St Ambrose. There is also mention of a procession accompanied by hymns, organized at Constantinople by St John Chrysostom c.

The cross was carried at the head of the procession and often the gospel and the relics of the saint were carried. Gregory of Tours gives numerous instances of such litanies in time of calamity; thus he describes [11] a procession of the clergy and people round the city, in which relics of St Remigius were carried and litanies chanted in order to avert the plague.

So, too, Gregory the Great [12] writes to the Sicilian bishops to hold processions to prevent a threatened invasion of Sicily. A famous instance of these penitential litanies is the litania septiformis ordered by Gregory the Great in the year , when Rome had been inundated and pestilence had followed. In this litany seven processions, of clergy, laymen, monks, nuns, matrons, the poor, and children respectively, starting from seven different churches, proceeding to hear mass at St.

Funeral processions, accompanied with singing and the carrying of lighted tapers, were very early customary see ceremonial use of lights , and akin to these, also very early, were the processions connected with the translation of the relics of martyrs from their original burying place to the church where they were to be enshrined.

The liturgy of the early Church as Duchesne shows [17] was influenced by that of the Jewish synagogue, but the theory that the Church's processions were directly related to the Old Testament ritual is of late origin. Festivals involving processions were adopted by the Christian Church from the pagan calendar of Rome. The litaniae majores et minores , which are stated by Hermann Usener [18] to have been first instituted by Pope Liberius The litania major , or great procession on St Mark's day April 25 is shown to coincide both in date and ritual with the Roman Robigalia , which took place ad.

This was already established as an annual festival by , as is shown by a document of Gregory the Great [20] that inculcates the duty of celebrating litaniam, quae major ab omnibus appellatur.

The litaniae minores or rogations , held on the three days preceding Ascension Day , were first introduced into Gaul by Bishop Mamertus of Vienne c. A description of the institution and character of the Ascensiontide rogations is given by Sidonius Apollinaris. Hitherto they had been erratic, lukewarm, and poorly attended vagae, tepentes, infrequentesque. Those he instituted were characterized by fasting, prayers, psalms, and tears. In the Ambrosian rite the rogations take place after Ascension , and in the Spanish on the Thursday to Saturday after Whitsuntide , and in November Synod of Girona , The Story of the Stone , written in the 18th century, contains a description of the procession accompanying an Imperial Concubine:.

Presently a faint sound of music was heard and the Imperial Concubine's procession at last came in sight. First came several pairs of eunuchs carrying embroidered banners. Then several more pairs with ceremonial pheasant-feather fans. Then eunuchs swinging gold-inlaid censers in which special 'palace incense ' was burning. Next came a great gold-coloured 'seven phoenix' umbrella of state, hanging from its curve-topped shaft life a great drooping bell-flower. In its shadow was borne the Imperial Concubine's travelling wardrobe: Eunuch gentlemen-in-waiting followed carrying her rosary, her embroidered handkerchief, her spittoon, her fly-whisk, and various other items.

Last of all, when this army of attendants had gone by, a great gold-topped palanquin with phoenixes embroidered on its yellow curtains slowly advanced on the shoulders of eight eunuch bearers. Many elements may be used to make a procession more significant than just "people walking in the same direction":.

Edo-period documenters enjoyed drawing the processions of pleasure district beauties, such as Courtesan Parading With Attendants by Suzuki Harunobu. The Lord Mayor's Show in London has long featured displays by the city's official trade guilds. Parades were at one time important advertisement when a traveling circus arrived in a new town. Today, many parades in the United States are sponsored by department stores, such as Macy's , which expect the public spectacle to lure shoppers to the store.

The signing of surrender by Japanese diplomats and soldiers aboard an American battle ship at the end of World War II involved a strictly codified procession on and off the ship. Such as ancient Roman triumphs, the durbar processions of India , and modern reviewing of the troops by generals and heads of state.

Return From Vienna , a painting by Jozef Brandt , shows war booty taken from the Turks being escorted into eastern Europe by soldiers. Some processions are arranged for entertainment , purely for fun , such as those of community organizations and friendly societies, so popular in Great Britain and the United States of America.

Religious ceremonies have since prehistory employed the procession of holy objects to inspire solidarity of belief. The Doges of Venice once staged elaborate barge processions to bless the waters on which Venice's tightly controlled maritime economy depended.

Symbolic processions were an important tool in the non-violent protest of Mahatma Gandhi. Marches on political capitals often include formal processions. Gay Pride parades also started with this basis in New York City. Processions used to mark the beginning or end of an event , such as parades at the beginning of county fairs or at the Olympic Games , or processions that begin and end funerals , graduations , and weddings.

Processions are found in almost every form of religious worship, such as Holy Week processions. Some biblical examples were the processions with the Ark of Covenant and the procession of Jesus on a donkey into Jerusalem. In a narrower sense of going forth, proceeding, the term is used in the technical language of theology in the phrase Procession of the Holy Ghost , expressing the relation of the Third Person in the Triune Godhead to the Father and the Son.

It is impossible to describe in detail the vast development of processions during the Middle Ages. The most important and characteristic of these still have a place in the ritual of the Catholic Church , as well as those of the Church of England and the Orthodox Church.

The Procession Path Lat. Typically the procession commences with the phanarion a lantern followed by the cross, [note 1] flanked by processional banners and icons , then choir and clergy, the deacons with censers , the priests with icons , and then the faithful.