Enigma machine

 


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During World War II, codebooks were only used each day to set up the rotors, their ring settings and the plugboard. For each message, the operator selected a random start position, let's say WZA , and a random message key, perhaps SXT. Assume the result was UHL. He then set up the message key, SXT , as the start position and encrypted the message. Next, he used this SXT message setting as the start position to decrypt the message.

This way, each ground setting was different and the new procedure avoided the security flaw of double encoded message settings. This procedure was used by Wehrmacht and Luftwaffe only. The Kriegsmarine procedures on sending messages with the Enigma were far more complex and elaborate.

Prior to encryption the message was encoded using the Kurzsignalheft code book. The Kurzsignalheft contained tables to convert sentences into four-letter groups. A great many choices were included, for example, logistic matters such as refuelling and rendezvous with supply ships, positions and grid lists, harbour names, countries, weapons, weather conditions, enemy positions and ships, date and time tables.

Another codebook contained the Kenngruppen and Spruchschlüssel: The Army Enigma machine used only the 26 alphabet characters. Punctuation was replaced with rare character combinations. A space was omitted or replaced with an X. The X was generally used as full-stop. Some punctuation marks were different in other parts of the armed forces. The Kriegsmarine replaced the comma with Y and the question mark with UD.

The Kriegsmarine , using the four rotor Enigma, had four-character groups. Frequently used names or words were varied as much as possible.

To make cryptanalysis harder, messages were limited to characters. Longer messages were divided into several parts, each using a different message key. The character substitutions by the Enigma machine as a whole can be expressed as a string of letters with each position occupied by the character that will replace the character at the corresponding position in the alphabet.

Since the operation of an Enigma machine encoding a message is a series of such configurations, each associated with a single character being encoded, a sequence of such representations can be used to represent the operation of the machine as it encodes a message. For example, the process of encoding the first sentence of the main body of the famous "Dönitz message" [25] to.

The Enigma family included multiple designs. The earliest were commercial models dating from the early s. Starting in the mids, the German military began to use Enigma, making a number of security-related changes. Various nations either adopted or adapted the design for their own cipher machines.

An estimated , Enigma machines were constructed. After the end of World War II, the Allies sold captured Enigma machines, still widely considered secure, to developing countries. On 23 February , [ not in citation given ] Arthur Scherbius applied for a patent for a ciphering machine that used rotors. They approached the German Navy and Foreign Office with their design, but neither agency was interested.

Chiffriermaschinen AG began advertising a rotor machine, Enigma model A , which was exhibited at the Congress of the International Postal Union in The machine was heavy and bulky, incorporating a typewriter. In Enigma model B was introduced, and was of a similar construction. They differed in physical size and shape, but also cryptographically, in that they lacked the reflector.

Model C was smaller and more portable than its predecessors. It lacked a typewriter, relying on the operator; hence the informal name of "glowlamp Enigma" to distinguish it from models A and B. The Enigma C quickly gave way to Enigma D In Hugh Foss at the British Government Code and Cypher School was able to show that commercial Enigma machines could be broken, provided suitable cribs were available.

Other countries used Enigma machines. The Spanish also used commercial Enigma machines during their Civil War. British codebreakers succeeded in breaking these machines, which lacked a plugboard.

In the Polish Cipher Bureau detected that it was in use for high-level military communication, but it was soon withdrawn, as it was unreliable and jammed frequently. An Enigma T model, code-named Tirpitz , was used by Japan. Once the British figured out Enigma's principle of operation, they fixed the problem with it and created their own, the Typex , which the Germans believed to be unsolvable. The Reichsmarine was the first military branch to adopt Enigma. This version, named Funkschlüssel C "Radio cipher C" , had been put into production by and was introduced into service in This Enigma variant was a four-wheel unsteckered machine with multiple notches on the rotors.

This model was equipped with a counter that incremented upon each key press, and so is also known as the "counter machine" or the Zählwerk Enigma. Enigma machine G was modified to the Enigma I by June The major difference between Enigma I German Army version from , and commercial Enigma models was the addition of a plugboard to swap pairs of letters, greatly increasing cryptographic strength.

Other differences included the use of a fixed reflector and the relocation of the stepping notches from the rotor body to the movable letter rings.

By , the Reichswehr had suggested that the Navy adopt their machine, citing the benefits of increased security with the plugboard and easier interservice communications.

While the Army used only three rotors at that time, the Navy specified a choice of three from a possible five. In December , the Army issued two extra rotors so that the three rotors were chosen from a set of five. A four-rotor Enigma was introduced by the Navy for U-boat traffic on 1 February , called M4 the network was known as Triton , or Shark to the Allies.

The extra rotor was fitted in the same space by splitting the reflector into a combination of a thin reflector and a thin fourth rotor.

Enigma G, used by the Abwehr , had four rotors, no plugboard, and multiple notches on the rotors. It had locally re-wired rotors and an additional lamp panel. The effort to break the Enigma was not disclosed until the s. Since then, interest in the Enigma machine has grown. Enigmas are on public display in museums around the world, and several are in the hands of private collectors and computer history enthusiasts. The Deutsches Museum in Munich has both the three- and four-rotor German military variants, as well as several civilian versions.

This machine is on loan from Australia. The International Museum of World War II near Boston has seven Enigma machines on display, including a U-Boat four-rotor model, one of three surviving examples of an Enigma machine with a printer, one of fewer than ten surviving ten-rotor code machines, an example blown up by a retreating German Army unit, and two three-rotor Enigmas that visitors can operate to encode and decode messages.

Replicas are available in various forms, including an exact reconstructed copy of the Naval M4 model, an Enigma implemented in electronics Enigma-E , various simulators and paper-and-scissors analogues. In early October , Bletchley Park officials announced that they would pay the ransom, but the stated deadline passed with no word from the blackmailer. Shortly afterward, the machine was sent anonymously to BBC journalist Jeremy Paxman , missing three rotors.

In November , an antiques dealer named Dennis Yates was arrested after telephoning The Sunday Times to arrange the return of the missing parts. The Enigma machine was returned to Bletchley Park after the incident.

In October , Yates was sentenced to ten months in prison and served three months. These 4-rotor commercial machines had helped Franco's Nationalists win the Spanish Civil War , because, though the British cryptologist Alfred Dilwyn Knox in broke the cipher generated by Franco's Enigma machines, this was not disclosed to the Republicans, who failed to break the cipher.

The Nationalist government continued using its 50 Enigmas into the s. The Enigma was influential in the field of cipher machine design, spinning off other rotor machines. The British Typex was originally derived from the Enigma patents; Typex even includes features from the patent descriptions that were omitted from the actual Enigma machine. The British paid no royalties for the use of the patents, to protect secrecy. The Typex implementation is not the same as that found in German or other Axis versions.

Little used, it contained four rotors mounted vertically. In the United States, cryptologist William Friedman designed the M , a machine logically similar, although not in construction. A unique rotor machine was constructed in by Netherlands-based Tatjana van Vark. This device makes use of point rotors, allowing letters, numbers and some punctuation to be used; each rotor contains parts. Several software implementations exist, but not all exactly match Enigma behaviour.

The most commonly used software derivative that is not compliant with any hardware implementation of the Enigma is at EnigmaCo. Many Java applet Enigmas only accept single letter entry, complicating use even if the applet is Enigma compliant. Technically, Enigma home is the largest scale deployment of a software Enigma, but the decoding software does not implement encipherment making it a derivative as all original machines could cipher and decipher.

A user-friendly 3-rotor simulator, where users can select rotors, use the plugboard and define new settings for the rotors and reflectors is available.

The "very fast" option produces 26 characters in less than one second. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Cryptanalysis of the Enigma. This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed.

April Learn how and when to remove this template message. Electronic implementation of an Enigma machine, sold at the Bletchley Park souvenir shop. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Retrieved 31 May Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology. Ultra also encompassed decrypts of the German Lorenz SZ 40 and 42 machines that were used by the German High Command, and decrypts of Hagelin ciphers and other Italian ciphers and codes, as well as of Japanese ciphers and codes such as Purple and JN Retrieved 1 Dec Archived from the original zip on 19 July Technical Specification of the Enigma.

Retrieved 15 November Retrieved 17 July Retrieved 22 July The index of coincidence and its applications in cryptology. Retrieved 16 October Retrieved 27 November Archived from the original on 21 October Polskie Radio dla Zagranicy. Retrieved 2 May Retrieved 8 September Rare Spanish Enigma Machine".

Decrypted Secrets 2nd ed.