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The Nazis were able to put Gleichschaltung into effect due to the legal measures taken by the government during the 20 months following 30 January , when Adolf Hitler became Chancellor of Germany. One day after the Reichstag fire on 27 February , President of Germany Paul von Hindenburg , acting at Hitler's request and on the basis of the emergency powers in article 48 of the Weimar Constitution , issued the Reichstag Fire Decree.
This decree suspended most citizen rights provided for by the constitution and thus allowed for the arrest of political adversaries, mostly Communists , and for terrorizing of other electors by the Sturmabteilung SA Nazi paramilitary branch before the upcoming election. In this atmosphere the Reichstag general election of 5 March took place. However, the Nazis won only SA units stormed the Social Democrats headquarters in Königsberg , destroying the premises and even beating Communist Reichstag deputy Walter Schütz to death.
When the newly elected Reichstag first convened on 23 March —not including the Communist delegates because their party had been banned on 6 March—it passed the Enabling Act Ermächtigungsgesetz. This law gave the government—and in practice, Hitler—the right to make laws without the involvement of the Reichstag. Throughout Germany, the Nazis were able to tighten their grip upon the state thanks to the Enabling Act. The "First Gleichschaltung Law" Erstes Gleichschaltungsgesetz , 31 March , passed using the Enabling Act; this law dissolved the diets of all Länder except the recently-elected Prussian parliament, which the Nazis already controlled.
The same law ordered the state diets reconstituted on the basis of the votes in the last Reichstag election with the exception of Communist seats , and also gave the state governments the same powers the Reich government possessed under the Enabling Act. These officers, responsible to Interior Minister Wilhelm Frick , were supposed to act as local proconsuls in each state, with near-complete control over the state governments.
Another measure of Nazi Gleichschaltung was the passing of the " Law for the Restoration of a Professional Civil Service ", decreed on 7 April , which enabled the "co-ordination" of the civil service—which in Germany included not only bureaucrats, but also schoolteachers and professors, judges, prosecutors and other professionals—at both the Federal and state level, and authorized the removal of Jews and Communists from all corresponding positions.
All of their powers passed to the central government. A law passed on 14 February formally abolished the Reichsrat. One of the most important steps towards Gleichschaltung of German society was the introduction of the "Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda" under Joseph Goebbels in March and the subsequent steps taken by the Propaganda Ministry to assume full control of the press and all means of social communication.
This included oversight of newspapers, magazines, films, books, public meetings and ceremonies, foreign press relations, theater, art and music, radio, and television. Of course propaganda has a purpose, but the purpose must be concealed with such cleverness and virtuosity that the person on whom this purpose is to be carried out doesn't notice it at all. This was also the purpose of "co-ordination": From March to July and continuing afterwards, the Nazi Party systematically eliminated or co-opted non-Nazi organizations that could potentially influence people.
Those critical of Hitler and the Nazis were suppressed, intimidated or murdered. Every national voluntary association, and every local club, was brought under Nazi control, from industrial and agricultural pressure groups to sports associations, football clubs, male voice choirs, women's organizations — in short, the whole fabric of associational life was Nazified.
Rival, politically oriented clubs or societies were merged into a single Nazi body. Existing leaders of voluntary associations were either unceremoniously ousted, or knuckled under of their own accord.
Many organizations expelled leftish or liberal members and declared their allegiance to the new state and its institutions.
By the end, virtually the only non-Nazi associations left were the army and the Churches with their lay organizations. An important part of the "co-ordination" effort was the purging of the civil service, both at the Federal and state level. Top Federal civil servants—the State Secretaries—were largely replaced if they weren't sympathetic to the Nazi program, as were the equivalent bureaucrats in the states, but Nazification took place at every level.
Civil servants rushed to join the Nazi Party, fearing that if they did not they would lose their jobs. At the local level, mayors and councils were terrorized by Nazi stormtroopers of the SA and SS into resigning or following orders to replace officials and workers at local public institutions who were Jewish or belonged to other political parties.
The Gleichschaltung also included the formation of various organisations with compulsory membership for segments of the population, in particular the youth of Germany. Boys first served as apprentices in the Pimpfen cubs , beginning at the age of six, and at age ten, entered the Deutsches Jungvolk Young German Boys and served there until entering the Hitler Youth proper at age fourteen.
Boys remained there until age eighteen, at which time they entered into the Arbeitsdienst Labor Service and the armed forces. At eighteen, BDM members went generally to the eastern territory for their Pflichtdienst , or Landjahr , a year of labor on a farm.
By , membership in the Hitler Youth numbered some eight million. An all-embracing recreational organization for workers, called Kraft durch Freude "Strength Through Joy" was set up under the auspices of the German Labor Front German: Deutsche Arbeitsfront or DAF , which had been created when the Nazis forcibly dissolved the trade unions on 2 May , thus eviscerating the labor movement.
He could not sing aloud, as he had done initially, but began to hum quietly, listening to the overtone melodies. Mary reports that Stockhausen first discovered the technique when listening to their small son Simon producing multiple tones while humming in his crib after falling asleep. In this way, Stockhausen became "the first Western composer to use this technique of singing again—in the Middle Ages it had been practised by women and children in churches, but was later entirely supplanted by masculine Gregorian music" Bauermeister , — Karlheinz Stockhausen's exploration of the harmonic series, notably in Stimmung , has often been linked to Young's example.
He requested tapes of the group's performances which, perhaps surprisingly, Young gave him. Potter , I didn't hear any of Feldman's music until , when I heard a piece of Stockhausen's called Refrain. Reich , Igor Stravinsky , on the other hand, traces Stimmung' s one-note idea back to the pedal point in Henry Purcell 's Fantasy upon One Note , and its time-scale to Wagner's Götterdämmerung , while at the same time observing that this time-scale "indicates the need of a musical equivalent to the parking meter" Stravinsky and Craft , 94— Compositions by Karlheinz Stockhausen.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Herbstmusik Oben und Unten Originale. Intervall Klavierstücke Natürliche Dauern Mantra. Huber Alden Jenks David C. List of compositions by Karlheinz Stockhausen Category: Compositions by Karlheinz Stockhausen Portal: Retrieved from " https: Compositions by Karlheinz Stockhausen Compositions in just intonation Minimalistic compositions compositions Serial compositions.
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